Ovarian Cancer Treatment

Ovarian Cancer Treatment in Iran

Table of Contents

What are the early warning signs of ovarian cancer?

What is Ovarian Cancer?

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. The female reproductive system contains two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries — each about the size of an almond — produce eggs (ova) as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. At this late stage, ovarian cancer is more difficult to treat. Early-stage ovarian cancer, in which the disease is confined to the ovary, is more likely to be treated successfully.

Surgery and chemotherapy are generally used to treat ovarian cancer.

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About Iranian Surgery

Iranian surgery is an online medical tourism platform where you can find the best Surgeons to treat your ovarian cancer in Iran. The price of treating an ovarian cancer in Iran can vary according to each individual’s case and will be determined by the type of ovarian cancer treatment you undergo and an in-person assessment with the doctor. So if you are looking for the cost of ovarian cancer treatment in Iran, you can contact us and get free consultation from Iranian surgery.

Before Ovarian Cancer Treatment

Symptoms of ovarian cancer

Early stage ovarian cancer may not have any symptoms. That can make it very difficult to detect. However, some symptoms may include:

. Frequent bloating

. Quickly feeling full when eating

. Difficulty eating

. A frequent, urgent need to urinate

. Pain or discomfort in the abdomen or pelvis

These symptoms have a sudden onset. They feel different from normal digestion or menstrual discomfort. They also don’t go away.

Other symptoms of ovarian cancer can include:

. Lower back pain

. Pain during intercourse

. Constipation

. Indigestion

. Fatigue

. A change in the menstrual cycle

. Weight gain

. Weight loss

. Vaginal bleeding

. Acne

. Back pain that worsens

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When to see a doctor

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms that worry you.

If you have a family history of ovarian cancer or breast cancer, talk to your doctor about your risk of ovarian cancer. Your doctor may refer you to a genetic counselor to discuss testing for certain gene mutations that increase your risk of breast and ovarian cancers.


It’s not clear what causes ovarian cancer, though doctors have identified factors that can increase the risk of the disease.

In general, cancer begins when a cell develops errors (mutations) in its DNA. The mutations tell the cell to grow and multiply quickly, creating a mass (tumor) of abnormal cells. The abnormal cells continue living when healthy cells would die. They can invade nearby tissues and break off from an initial tumor to spread elsewhere in the body (metastasize).

Ovarian cancer risk factors

While a cause for ovarian cancer is not known, researchers have identified several risk factors that may increase your risk for developing this type of cancer. They include:

. Genetics: If you have a family history of ovarian, breast, fallopian tube, or colorectal cancer, your risks for developing ovarian cancer are higher. That’s because researchers have identified certain genetic mutations that are responsible for these cancers. They can be passed from parent to child.

. Personal medical history: If you have a personal history of breast cancer, your risk for ovarian cancer is higher. Likewise, if you’ve been diagnosed with certain conditions of the reproductive system, your odds of developing ovarian cancer are higher. These conditions include polycystic ovary syndrome and endometriosis, among others.

. Reproductive history: Women who use birth control actually have a lower risk of ovarian cancer, but women who use fertility drugs may have a higher risk. Likewise, women who’ve been pregnant and breastfed their infants may have a lower risk, but women who’ve never been pregnant are at an increased risk.

. Age: Ovarian cancer is most common in older women; it’s rarely diagnosed in women under age 40. In fact, you’re more likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer after menopause.

. Ethnicity: Non-Hispanic white women also have the highest risk of ovarian cancer. They’re followed by Hispanic women and black women.

. Body size: Women with a body mass index over 30 have a higher risk for ovarian cancer.

. Estrogen hormone replacement therapy: especially with long-term use and in large doses.

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Diagnosing ovarian cancer

Diagnosing ovarian cancer starts with a medical history and physical exam. The physical exam should include a pelvic and rectal examination. One or more blood tests may also be used to diagnose this condition.

An annual Pap smear test does not detect ovarian cancer. Tests that may be used to diagnose ovarian cancer include:

. A complete blood count

. A test for cancer antigen 125 levels, which may be elevated if you have ovarian cancer.

. A test for HCG levels, which may be elevated if you have a germ cell tumor

. A test for alpha-fetoprotein, which may be produced by germ cell tumors

. A test for lactate dehydrogenase levels, which may be elevated if you have a germ cell tumor.

. A test for inhibin, estrogen, and testosterone levels, which may be elevated if you have a stromal cell tumor.

. Liver function tests to determine if the cancer has spread

. Kidney function tests to determine if the cancer has obstructed your urine flow or spread to the bladder and kidneys.

Other diagnostic studies can also be used to check for signs of ovarian cancer:


A biopsy is essential for determining if cancer is present. During the procedure, a small tissue sample is taken from the ovaries to look for cancer cells.

This can be done with a needle that’s guided by a CT scan or by an ultrasound. It can also be done through a laparoscope. If fluid in the abdomen is present, a sample can be examined for cancer cells.

Imaging tests

There are several types of imaging tests that can look for changes in the ovaries and other organs that are caused by cancer. These include a CT scan, MRI, and PET scan.

Checking for metastasis

If your doctor suspects ovarian cancer, they may order other tests to see if the cancer has spread to other organs. These tests may include the following:

. A urinalysis can be done to look for signs of infection or blood in the urine. These can occur if cancer spreads to the bladder and kidneys.

. A chest X-ray can be done to detect when tumors have spread to the lungs.

. A barium enema can be done to see if the tumor has spread to the colon or rectum.

Regular ovarian cancer screenings are not recommended. Right now, medical experts believe they return too many false results. However, if you have a family history of breast, ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer, you may want to be tested for certain gene mutations and be screening regularly. Decide if ovarian cancer screenings are right for you.

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Can ovarian cancer be prevented?

Ovarian cancer rarely shows symptoms in the early stages. As a result, it’s often not discovered until it has progressed into advanced stages. There’s currently no way to prevent ovarian cancer, but doctors know of factors that lower your risk of developing ovarian cancer.

These factors include:

. Taking birth control pills

. Having given birth

. Breastfeeding

. Tubal ligation (also known as “getting your tubes tied”)

. Hysterectomy

Tubal ligation and hysterectomy should only be performed for valid medical reasons. For some, a valid medical reason may be reducing your risk of ovarian cancer. However, you and your doctor should discuss other prevention options first.

You should talk to your doctor about early screening for ovarian cancer if you have a family history of it. Specific gene mutations can put you at risk for ovarian cancer later. Knowing if you have these mutations can help you and your doctor stay vigilant for changes.

During Ovarian Cancer Treatment

Types of ovarian cancer

. Epithelial carcinoma of the ovary

Epithelial cell carcinoma is the most common type of ovarian cancer. It makes up 85 to 89 percent of ovarian cancers. It’s also the fourth most common cause of cancer death in women.

This type often doesn’t have symptoms in the early stages. Most people aren’t diagnosed until they’re in the advanced stages of the disease.

Genetic factors

This type of ovarian cancer can run in families and is more common in women who have a family history of:

. Ovarian cancer and breast cancer

. Ovarian cancer without breast cancer

. Ovarian cancer and colon cancer

Women who have two or more first-degree relatives, such as a parent, sibling, or child, with ovarian cancer are at the highest risk. However, having even one first-degree relative with ovarian cancer increases the risk. The “breast cancer genes” BRCA1 and BRCA2 are also associated with ovarian cancer risk.

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Factors that are linked to increased survival

Several factors are linked to increased survival in women who have epithelial carcinoma of the ovary:

. Receiving a diagnosis at an earlier stage

. Being a younger age

. Having a well-differentiated tumor, or cancer cells that still closely resemble healthy cells.

. Having a smaller tumor at the time of removal

. Having a cancer caused by BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes

. Germ cell cancer of the ovary

“Germ cell cancer of the ovary” is a name that describes several different types of cancer. These cancers develop from the cells that create eggs. They usually occur in young women and adolescents and are most common in women in their 20s.

These cancers can be large, and they tend to grow quickly. Sometimes, tumors produce human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). This can cause a false-positive pregnancy test.

Germ cell cancers are often very treatable. Surgery is the first-line treatment. Chemotherapy after the surgery is highly recommended.

. Stromal cell cancer of the ovary

Stromal cell cancers develop from the cells of the ovaries. Some of these cells also produce ovarian hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone.

Stromal cell cancers of the ovaries are rare and grow slowly. They secrete estrogen and testosterone. Excess testosterone can cause acne and facial hair growth. Too much estrogen can cause uterine bleeding. These symptoms can be quite noticeable.

This makes stromal cell cancer more likely to be diagnosed at an early stage. People who have stromal cell cancer often have a good outlook. This type of cancer is usually managed with surgery.

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What are the stages of ovarian cancer?

Your doctor determines the stage based on how far the cancer has spread. There are four stages, and each stage has substages:

Stage 1

Stage 1 ovarian cancer has three substages:

. Stage 1A.The cancer is limited, or localized, to one ovary.

. Stage 1B. The cancer is in both ovaries.

. Stage 1C. There are also cancer cells on the outside of the ovary.

Stage 2

In stage 2, the tumor has spread to other pelvic structures. It has two substages:

. Stage 2A. The cancer has spread to the uterus or fallopian tubes.

. Stage 2B. The cancer has spread to the bladder or rectum.

Stage 3

Stage 3 ovarian cancer has three sub-stages:

. Stage 3A. The cancer has spread microscopically beyond the pelvis to the lining of the abdomen and the lymph nodes in the abdomen.

. Stage 3B. The cancer cells have spread beyond the pelvis to the lining of the abdomen and are visible to naked eye but measure less than 2 cm.

. Stage 3C. Deposits of cancer at least 3/4 of an inch are seen on the abdomen or outside the spleen or liver. However, the cancer isn’t inside the spleen or liver.

Stage 4

In stage 4, the tumor has metastasized, or spread, beyond the pelvis, abdomen, and lymph nodes to the liver or lungs. There are two substages in stage 4:

. In stage 4A, the cancerous cells are in the fluid around the lungs.

. In stage 4B, the most advanced stage, the cells have reached the inside of the spleen or liver or even other distant organs like the skin or brain.


Treatment of ovarian cancer usually involves a combination of surgery and chemotherapy.


Operations to remove ovarian cancer include:

. Surgery to remove one ovary. For very early stage cancer that hasn’t spread beyond one ovary, surgery may involve removing the affected ovary and its fallopian tube. This procedure may preserve your ability to have children.

. Surgery to remove both ovaries. If cancer is present in both your ovaries, but there are no signs of additional cancer, your surgeon may remove both ovaries and both fallopian tubes. This procedure leaves your uterus intact, so you may still be able to become pregnant using your own frozen embryos or eggs or with eggs from a donor.

. Surgery to remove both ovaries and the uterus. If your cancer is more extensive or if you don’t wish to preserve your ability to have children, your surgeon will remove the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the uterus, nearby lymph nodes and a fold of fatty abdominal tissue (omentum).

. Surgery for advanced cancer. If your cancer is advanced, your doctor may recommend chemotherapy followed by surgery to remove as much of the cancer as possible.


Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses chemicals to kill fast-growing cells in the body, including cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs can be injected into a vein or taken by mouth. Sometimes the drugs are injected directly into the abdomen (intraperitoneal chemotherapy).

Chemotherapy is often used after surgery to kill any cancer cells that might remain. It can also be used before surgery.

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy uses medications that target the specific vulnerabilities present within your cancer cells. Targeted therapy drugs are usually reserved for treating ovarian cancer that returns after initial treatment or cancer that resists other treatments. Your doctor may test your cancer cells to determine which targeted therapy is most likely to have an effect on your cancer.

Targeted therapy is an active area of cancer research. Many clinical trials are testing new targeted therapies.

Supportive (palliative) care

Palliative care is specialized medical care that focuses on providing relief from pain and other symptoms of a serious illness. Palliative care specialists work with you, your family and your other doctors to provide an extra layer of support that complements your ongoing care. Palliative care can be used while undergoing other aggressive treatments, such as surgery and chemotherapy.

When palliative care is used along with all of the other appropriate treatments, people with cancer may feel better and live longer.

Palliative care is provided by a team of doctors, nurses and other specially trained professionals. Palliative care teams aim to improve the quality of life for people with cancer and their families. This form of care is offered alongside curative or other treatments you may be receiving.

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After Ovarian Cancer Treatment

Ovarian cancer survival rates

Survival rates are an indication of how many people with the same type of cancer are alive after a specific period of time. Most survival rates are based on five years. While these numbers do not tell you how long you may live, they do provide an idea of how successful treatment for a particular type of cancer is.

For all types of ovarian cancer, the five-year survival rate is 47 percent. However, if ovarian cancer is found and treated before it spreads outside the ovaries, the five-year survival rate is 92 percent.

However, less than one quarter, 15 percent, of all ovarian cancers are found at this early stage.

Can I lower my risk of the ovarian cancer progressing or coming back?

If you have (or have had) ovarian cancer, you probably want to know if there are things you can do that might lower your risk of the cancer growing or coming back, such as exercising, eating a certain type of diet, or taking nutritional supplements. Unfortunately, it’s not yet clear if there are things you can do that will help.

Adopting healthy behaviors such as not smoking, eating well, getting regular physical activity, and staying at a healthy weight might help, but no one knows for sure. However, we do know that these types of changes can have positive effects on your health that can extend beyond your risk of ovarian cancer or other cancers.

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12 Responses

  1. What is the difference between ovarian cancer and an ovarian cyst because im recognized for ovarian cancer but another doctor recognized it as a cyst;I don’t know which one is true?

    1. Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that develop on one or both ovaries. Typically, ovarian cysts are not cancerous—although they may cause similar symptoms, such as pelvic pain, a feeling of pressure in the abdomen and difficulty emptying the bladder. Cysts often develop with a woman’s menstrual cycle during her reproductive years. Post-menopausal women with ovarian cysts have a higher risk of cancer

  2. Dear friends, I wanna some details ,is there an association between hormone replacement therapy and ovarian cancer?

    1. The latest interpretation of data resulting from the Women’s Health Initiative study suggests that postmenopausal women who take combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) continuously may face a higher risk of ovarian cancer.
      While researchers say the findings shouldn’t affect most women’s decisions to take HRT to relieve moderate to severe menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes, the possibility of an increased ovarian cancer risk support recently revised guidelines that call for the conservative use of hormone therapy.

    1. This probably is the most important question you’ll ask your doctor.

      Getting detailed descriptions of treatments and their success rates will help you make the best decisions about your care.

      Most cases require a “double-barrel shotgun approach,” Leuchter says. “That means surgery and chemotherapy,” he adds, usually in that order.

  3. Can ovarian cancer be missed on ultrasound? I heard somewhere that it some times get missed in sonography.

    1. Ovarian Cancer: Missed and Misdiagnosed
      Additionally, as in Gubar’s case, some signs of ovarian cancer are similar to those of other conditions. … A pelvic exam, when your ovaries and uterus are checked for size, shape and consistency, can sometimes detect some reproductive system cancers at an early stage.

    1. Ovarian cysts usually do not have symptoms, but in some people these cysts are accompanied by symptoms such as postmenopausal bleeding, pain during intercourse, and abdominal pain and menstrual irregularities.

  4. Hello. my wife been diagnosed with ovarian cyst.. What size of ovarian cyst is dangerous? is it serious?

    1. hello we are sorry to hear that

      The size of a cyst directly corresponds to the rate at which they shrink. Most functional cysts are 2 inches in diameter or less and do not require surgery for removal. However, cysts that are larger than 4 centimeters in diameter will usually require surgery

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