Ovarian Cancer Treatment in Iran

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Ovarian Cancer Treatment in Iran

ovarian cancer treatment in iran

Ovarian Cancer Treatment in Iran

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. Women have two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries — each about the size of an almond — produce eggs (ova) as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. At this late stage, ovarian cancer is more difficult to treat and is frequently fatal. Early-stage ovarian cancer, in which the disease is confined to the ovary, is more likely to be treated successfully.

Surgery and chemotherapy are generally used to treat ovarian cancer.

 

how much does ovarian cancer treatment cost in Iran?

The average ovarian cancer treatment cost in Iran start from $2000.

What is the most effective treatment for ovarian cancer?
The drug in this type that is approved maintenance treatment for ovarian/fallopian tube/peritoneal cancer is bevacizumab (Avastin).

Symptoms

Early-stage ovarian cancer rarely causes any symptoms. Advanced-stage ovarian cancer may cause few and nonspecific symptoms that are often mistaken for more common benign conditions, such as constipation or irritable bowel.

Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer may include:

  • Abdominal bloating or swelling
  • Quickly feeling full when eating
  • Weight loss
  • Discomfort in the pelvis area
  • Changes in bowel habits, such as constipation
  • A frequent need to urinate

When to see a doctor


Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms that worry you.

If you have a family history of ovarian cancer or breast cancer, talk to your doctor about your risk of ovarian cancer. Your doctor may refer you to a genetic counselor to discuss testing for certain gene mutations that increase your risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Only a small number of women are found to have genetic mutations that can lead to ovarian cancer.

Causes

It's not clear what causes ovarian cancer.

In general, cancer begins when a genetic mutation turns normal cells into abnormal cancer cells. Cancer cells quickly multiply, forming a mass (tumor). They can invade nearby tissues and break off from an initial tumor to spread elsewhere in the body (metastasize).

Types of ovarian cancer

The type of cell where the cancer begins determines the type of ovarian cancer you have. Ovarian cancer types include:

  • Epithelial tumors, which begin in the thin layer of tissue that covers the outside of the ovaries. About 90 percent of ovarian cancers are epithelial tumors.
  • Stromal tumors, which begin in the ovarian tissue that contains hormone-producing cells. These tumors are usually diagnosed at an earlier stage than other ovarian tumors. About 7 percent of ovarian tumors are stromal.
  • Germ cell tumors, which begin in the egg-producing cells. These rare ovarian cancers tend to occur in younger women.

 

How praparing for an appointment?

Start by making an appointment with your family doctor, general practitioner or a gynecologist if you have any signs or symptoms that worry you. If your primary care doctor suspects you have ovarian cancer, you may be referred to a specialist in female reproductive cancers (gynecologic oncologist). A gynecologic oncologist is an obstetrician and gynecologist (OB-GYN) who has additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian and other gynecologic cancers.

What you can do
Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions, such as not eating solid food on the day before your appointment.
Write down your symptoms, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason why you scheduled the appointment.
Write down your key medical information, including other conditions.
Write down key personal information, including any major changes or stressors in your life.
Make a list of all your medications, vitamins or supplements.
Ask a relative or friend to accompany you, to help you remember what the doctor says.
Write down questions to ask your doctor.
Questions to ask your doctor
What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?
What kinds of tests do I need?
What treatments are available, and what side effects can I expect?
What is the prognosis?
If I still want to have children, what options are available to me?
I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?
In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask other questions that occur to you.

What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions. Being ready to answer them may make time to go over points you want to spend more time on. You may be asked:

When did you first begin experiencing symptoms, and how severe are they?
Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
What, if anything, seems to improve or worsen your symptoms?
Do you have any relatives with ovarian or breast cancer?
Are there other cancers in your family history?

Risk factors

Certain factors may increase your risk of ovarian cancer:

  • Age. Ovarian cancer can occur at any age but is most common in women ages 50 to 60 years.
  • Inherited gene mutation. A small percentage of ovarian cancers are caused by an inherited gene mutation. The genes known to increase the risk of ovarian cancer are called breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2). These genes were originally identified in families with multiple cases of breast cancer, which is how they got their names, but women with these mutations also have a significantly increased risk of ovarian cancer.

    The gene mutations that cause Lynch syndrome, which is associated with colon cancer, also increase a woman's risk of ovarian cancer.

  • Estrogen hormone replacement therapy, especially with long-term use and in large doses.
  • Age when menstruation started and ended. If you began menstruating before age 12 or underwent menopause after age 52, or both, your risk of ovarian cancer may be higher.
  • Never being pregnant.
  • Fertility treatment.
  • Smoking.
  • Use of an intrauterine device.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome.

Prevention

 

There's no sure way to prevent ovarian cancer. But certain factors are associated with lower risk:

  • Use of oral contraceptives, especially for more than 10 years
  • Previous pregnancy
  • History of breast-feeding
  • Daily use of aspirin

Steps of Ovarian Cancer Treatment in Iran

First stage
Diagnosis
 Your doctor is likely to start with a pelvic examination:
The outer part of your genitals is carefully inspected.
The doctor then inserts two gloved fingers into the vagina and simultaneously presses a hand on your abdomen to feel your uterus and ovaries.
A device (speculum) is inserted into the vagina so that the doctor can visually check for abnormalities.

Your doctor also may recommend:

Imaging tests, such as ultrasound or CT scans, of your abdomen and pelvis. These tests can help determine the size, shape and structure of your ovaries.
Blood test, which can detect a protein (CA 125) found on the surface of ovarian cancer cells.
Surgery to remove a tissue sample and abdominal fluid to confirm a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Minimally invasive or robotic surgery may be an option. If cancer is discovered, the surgeon may immediately begin surgery to remove as much of the cancer as possible.
Staging ovarian cancer

Doctors use the results of your surgery to help determine the extent — or stage — of your cancer. Your cancer's stage helps determine your prognosis and your treatment options.

Stages of ovarian cancer include:
Stage I. Cancer is found in one or both ovaries.
Stage II. Cancer has spread to other parts of the pelvis.
Stage III. Cancer has spread to the abdomen.
Stage IV. Cancer is found outside the abdomen.

second stage

Treatment and drug

 

Treatment of ovarian cancer usually involves a combination of surgery and chemotherapy.

Surgery

Treatment generally involves removing both ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the uterus as well as nearby lymph nodes and a fold of fatty abdominal tissue (omentum) where ovarian cancer often spreads. Your surgeon also will remove as much cancer as possible from your abdomen.

Less extensive surgery may be possible if your ovarian cancer was diagnosed at a very early stage. For women with stage I ovarian cancer, surgery may involve removing one ovary and its fallopian tube. This procedure may preserve the ability to have children.

Chemotherapy

After surgery, you'll likely be treated with chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs can be injected into a vein or directly into the abdominal cavity or both.

Chemotherapy may be used as the initial treatment in some women with advanced ovarian cancer.

1Can you be fully cured of ovarian cancer?
For some people with ovarian cancer, treatment may remove or destroy the cancer. ... This is very common if you've had cancer. For other people, ovarian cancer never goes away completely. Some women may be treated with chemotherapy on and off for years.
2How long do you live after being diagnosed with ovarian cancer?
For all types of ovarian cancer taken together, about 3 in 4 women with ovarian cancer live for at least 1 year after diagnosis. Almost half (46%) of women with ovarian cancer are still alive at least 5 years after diagnosis. Women diagnosed when they are younger than 65 do better than older women.
3What is the best treatment for ovarian cancer?
Surgery. Surgery to remove the cancerous growth is the most common method of diagnosis and therapy for ovarian cancer. It is best performed by a qualified gynecologic oncologist. Most women with ovarian cancer will have surgery at some point during the course of their disease, and each surgery has different goals.
4How is Stage 1 ovarian cancer treated?
Stage I cancers. The initial treatment for stage I ovarian cancer is surgery to remove the tumor. Most often the uterus, both fallopian tubes, and both ovaries are removed (a hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy). ... For grade 1 (also called low grade) tumors, most women don't need any treatment after surgery
5What are the 10 signs of ovarian cancer?
What are the early signs of ovarian cancer? bloating. pelvic or abdominal pain or cramping. feeling full quickly after starting to eat or lack of appetite. indigestion or upset stomach. nausea. the need to urinate more frequently or urgently than normal. a pressure in the lower back or pelvis. unexplained exhaustion.
6What kills ovarian cancer cells?
The researchers showed how gelsolin works at the molecular level to protect cancer cells against a widely used chemotherapy drug called cisplatin.
7Where does ovarian cancer usually spread to first?
Metastatic ovarian cancer is an advanced stage malignancy that has spread from the cells in the ovaries to distant areas of the body. This type of cancer is most likely to spread to the liver, the fluid around the lungs, the spleen, the intestines, the brain, skin or lymph nodes outside of the abdomen.
8Does ovarian cancer spread quickly?
Evidence now suggests that even early-stage ovarian cancer can produce symptoms. Ovarian cancer grows quickly and can progress from early to advanced stages within a year.
9Will ovarian cancer kill you?
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Once a woman begins experiencing symptoms of ovarian cancer, getting diagnosed and treated quickly may not help her survive longer, according to a new study of Australian women. ... Ovarian cancer kills the majority of women with the disease within 5 years.
10Will a hysterectomy cure ovarian cancer?
A partial hysterectomy removes your uterus, and a total hysterectomy removes your uterus and your cervix. Both procedures leave your ovaries intact, so you can still develop ovarian cancer. Total hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy. ... This makes ovarian cancer less likely to occur, but it does not remove all risk.

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9 Comments

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  2. neda raoof says:

    What is the difference between ovarian cancer and an ovarian cyst because im recognized for ovarian cancer but another doctor recognized it as a cyst;I don’t know which one is true?

    • Iranian Surgery Adviser says:

      Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that develop on one or both ovaries. Typically, ovarian cysts are not cancerous—although they may cause similar symptoms, such as pelvic pain, a feeling of pressure in the abdomen and difficulty emptying the bladder. Cysts often develop with a woman’s menstrual cycle during her reproductive years. Post-menopausal women with ovarian cysts have a higher risk of cancer

  3. Olivia says:

    Dear friends, I wanna some details ,is there an association between hormone replacement therapy and ovarian cancer?

    • Iranian Surgery Adviser says:

      The latest interpretation of data resulting from the Women’s Health Initiative study suggests that postmenopausal women who take combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) continuously may face a higher risk of ovarian cancer.
      While researchers say the findings shouldn’t affect most women’s decisions to take HRT to relieve moderate to severe menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes, the possibility of an increased ovarian cancer risk support recently revised guidelines that call for the conservative use of hormone therapy.

  4. nilloo says:

    What are my ovarian cancer options?

    • Iranian Surgery Adviser says:

      This probably is the most important question you’ll ask your doctor.

      Getting detailed descriptions of treatments and their success rates will help you make the best decisions about your care.

      Most cases require a “double-barrel shotgun approach,” Leuchter says. “That means surgery and chemotherapy,” he adds, usually in that order.

  5. mina says:

    Can ovarian cancer be missed on ultrasound? I heard somewhere that it some times get missed in sonography.

    • Iranian Surgery Adviser says:

      Ovarian Cancer: Missed and Misdiagnosed
      Additionally, as in Gubar’s case, some signs of ovarian cancer are similar to those of other conditions. … A pelvic exam, when your ovaries and uterus are checked for size, shape and consistency, can sometimes detect some reproductive system cancers at an early stage.

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