Colorectal Cancer treatment in Iran

Colon cancer
March 18, 2019

Colorectal Cancer treatment in Iran

colorectal cancer treatment in iran

Colorectal cancer treatment in Iran


For most people, a tummy ache is just that. A simple tummy ache. It's something we tend to take very casually. But, on occasion, a stomach ache can be indicative of a far more serious problem - digestive track complications, colitis and even cancer. Tackling these conditions at an early stage ensures you a better chance of survival. In cases involving colonic cancer and colitis, timely intervention can save the lives of 70-80% of patients. So, make it a point to visit your doctor regularly for check-ups.

Colorectal cancer starts in the colon or the rectum. These cancers can also be named colon cancer or rectal cancer, depending on where they start.

Warning signs


Persistent constipation or diarrhoea
An urgency to move the bowels
Rectal cramping, or rectal bleeding
Dark patches of blood in or on stool; or long, thin, "pencil stools"
Abdominal discomfort or bloating
Unexplained fatigue, loss of appetite, and/or weight loss
Pelvic pain, which occurs at later stages of the disease

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Risk factors


Older age (after 50)
Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis
A personal or family history of colorectal cancer or colorectal polyps
Lack of regular physical activity
Low fruit and vegetable intake
A low-fibre and high-fat diet
Overweight and obesity
Alcohol consumption
Tobacco use
Progression:
Stage I: Cancer has grown through the mucosa and has invaded the muscular layer of the colon or rectum.

Stage II: Cancer has grown through the wall of the colon or rectum

Stage III: Cancer has grown through the inner lining or into the muscle layers of the intestine and spread to one to three lymph nodes

Stage IV: Cancer has spread to different organ like lungs, bones, liver, lymph nodes, brain or spinal cord.

Diagnosis
Primary diagnosis : Physical examination, blood tests
Advanced diagnosis : Colonoscopy (using a scope to examine the inside of your colon)

What Is Colorectal Cancer?

Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the colon or the rectum. These cancers can also be named colon cancer or rectal cancer, depending on where they start. Colon cancer and rectal cancer are often grouped together because they have many features in common.

Cancer starts when cells in the body start to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer, and can spread to other areas of the body. To learn more about how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer?

How does colorectal cancer start?

Polyps in the colon or rectum

Most colorectal cancers start as a growth on the inner lining of the colon or rectum. These growths are called polyps.

Some types of polyps can change into cancer over time (usually many years), but not all polyps become cancer. The chance of a polyp changing into cancer depends on the type of polyp it is. The 2 main types of polyps are:

  • Adenomatous polyps (adenomas): These polyps sometimes change into cancer. Because of this, adenomas are called a pre-cancerous condition.
  • Hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps: These polyps are more common, but in general they are not pre-cancerous.

Other factors that can make a polyp more likely to contain cancer or increase someone’s risk of developing colorectal cancer include:

  • If a polyp larger than 1 cm is found
  • If more than 2 polyps are found
  • If dysplasia is seen in the polyp after it's removed. Dysplasia is another pre-cancerous condition. It means there's an area in a polyp or in the lining of the colon or rectum where the cells look abnormal, but they don't look like true cancer cells.

For more details on the types of polyps and conditions that can lead to colorectal cancer, see Understanding Your Pathology Report: Colon Polyps.

How colorectal cancer spreads

If cancer forms in a polyp, it can grow into the wall of the colon or rectum over time. The wall of the colon and rectum is made up of many layers. Colorectal cancer starts in the innermost layer (the mucosa) and can grow outward through some or all of the other layers.

When cancer cells are in the wall, they can then grow into blood vessels or lymph vessels (tiny channels that carry away waste and fluid). From there, they can travel to nearby lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body.

The stage (extent of spread) of a colorectal cancer depends on how deeply it grows into the wall and if it has spread outside the colon or rectum. For more on staging, see Colorectal Cancer Stages.

Where does colorectal cancer grow?

To understand colorectal cancer, it helps to understand the parts that make up the colon and rectum. The colon and rectum make up the large intestine (or large bowel), which is part of the digestive system, also called the gastrointestinal (GI) system (see illustration below).

Most of the large intestine is made up of the colon, a muscular tube about 5 feet long. The parts of the colon are named by which way the food is traveling through them.

  • The first section is called the ascending colon. It starts with a pouch called the cecum, where undigested food is comes in from the small intestine. It extends upward on the right side of the abdomen (belly).
  • The second section is called the transverse colon. It goes across the body from the right to the left side.
  • The third section is called the descending colon because it descends (travels down) on the left side.
  • The fourth section is called the sigmoid colon because of its “S” shape. The sigmoid colon joins the rectum, which connects to the anus.

The ascending and transverse sections together are called the proximal colon. The descending and sigmoid colon are called the distal colon.

color illustration of the digestive system which shows the location of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, anus, rectum, appendix, cecum, ascending colon, small intestine, gallbladder and liver

What do the colon and rectum do?

The colon absorbs water and salt from the remaining food matter after it goes through the small intestine (small bowel). The waste matter that's left after going through the colon goes into the rectum, the final 6 inches of the digestive system. It's stored there until it passes out of the body through the anus. Ring-shaped sphincter (SFINK-ter) muscles around the anus keeps stool from coming out until they relax during a bowel movement.

Types of cancer in the colon and rectum

Adenocarcinomas make up about 96% of colorectal cancers. These cancers start in cells that make mucus to lubricate the inside of the colon and rectum. When doctors talk about colorectal cancer, they're almost always talking about this type. Some sub-types of adenocarcinoma, such as signet ring and mucinous, may have a worse prognosis (outlook).

Other, much less common types of tumors can start in the colon and rectum, too. These include:

  • Carcinoid tumors. These start from special hormone-making cells in the intestine. They're covered in Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) start from special cells in the wall of the colon called the interstitial cells of Cajal. Some are not cancer (benign). These tumors can be found anywhere in the digestive tract, but are not common in the colon. They're discussed in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST).
  • Lymphomas are cancers of immune system cells. They mostly start in lymph nodes, but they can also start in the colon, rectum, or other organs. Information on lymphomas of the digestive system can be found in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
  • Sarcomas can start in blood vessels, muscle layers, or other connective tissues in the wall of the colon and rectum. Sarcomas of the colon or rectum are rare. They're discussed in Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

 

10 common Questions about colorectal cancer

1What are the early signs of colon cancer?
Signs and symptoms of colon cancer include: A persistent change in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of your stool. Rectal bleeding or blood in your stool. Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain. A feeling that your bowel doesn't empty completely.
2How does colorectal cancer start?
Although most colorectal polyps do not become cancer, virtually all colon and rectal cancers start from these growths. People may inherit diseases in which the risk of colon polyps and cancer is very high. Colorectal cancer may also develop from areas of abnormal cells in the lining of the colon or rectum.
3How long do you live after being diagnosed with colon cancer?
This means that about 14% of people with stage IV colon cancer are likely to still be alive 5 years after they are diagnosed. But you're not a number. No one, including your doctor, can tell you exactly how long you'll live.
4What is the survival rate of colorectal cancer?
The 5-year survival rate of people with localized stage colorectal cancer is 90%. About 39% of patients are diagnosed at this early stage. If the cancer has spread to surrounding tissues or organs and/or the regional lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is 71%.
5Where is the first place colon cancer spreads?
Treating stage IV colon cancer. Stage IV colon cancers have spread from the colon to distant organs and tissues. Colon cancer most often spreads to the liver, but it can also spread to other places like the lungs, brain, peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity), or to distant lymph nodes.
6What color is the blood when you have colon cancer?
Cancers and polyps of the colon and rectum can cause bright red rectal bleeding, maroon colored stools, and sometimes melena.
7What is colon cancer pain like?
Small-caliber (narrow) or ribbon-like stools. Constipation. Sensation of incomplete evacuation after a bowel movement. Rectal pain: Pain rarely occurs with colon cancer and usually indicates a bulky tumor in the rectum that may invade surrounding tissue after moving through the colon's submucosa.
8Can colorectal cancer be cured?
Treating stage IV colon cancer. ... In most cases surgery is unlikely to cure these cancers. But if there are only a few small areas of cancer spread (metastases) in the liver or lungs and they can be removed along with the colon cancer, surgery may help you live longer.
9How long does it take for colon cancer to spread?
It is believed to take about 10 years for a small precancerous polyp to grow into cancer. Therefore, if appropriate colorectal cancer screening is performed, most of these polyps can be removed before they turn into cancer, effectively preventing the development of colon cancer.
10Does bowel cancer spread quickly?
Often, very small amounts of blood, which may not be able to be seen, are leaked from these cancers long before any symptoms develop. This blood is then passed into the faeces. If untreated, it spreads deeper into the wall of the bowel. ... Later, bowel cancer can spread to the liver or lungs.

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