Bladder cancer treatment in iran

Radiation Therapy in Iran
June 29, 2019
Chemotherapy in Iran
June 29, 2019

Bladder cancer treatment in iran

Bladder cancer treatment Iran

What is bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer is when abnormal cells in the bladder grow and divide in an uncontrolled way.

There are different types of bladder cancer:

urothelial carcinoma, formally known as transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common form of bladder cancer (80-90%) and starts in the urothelial cells in the bladder wall's innermost layer
squamous cell carcinoma begins in the thin, flat cells that line the bladder
adenocarcinoma is a rare form which starts in mucus-producing cells in the bladder.
In 2015,10240new cases of bladder cancer were diagnosed in iran. Bladder cancer is common in people aged over 60 and is significantly more common in men than in women.

The chances of surviving bladder cancer for five years is 54%.

Bladder cancer symptoms:

The most common symptom of bladder cancer is blood in the urine (haematuria), which usually occurs suddenly and is generally not painful.

Other less common symptoms include:

problems emptying the bladder
a burning feeling when passing urine
need to pass urine often
blood in urine
lower abdominal or back pain.
Causes of bladder cancer
Some factors that can increase your risk of bladder cancer include:

smoking

workplace exposure to certain chemicals used in dyeing in the textile, petrochemical and rubber industries
use of the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide
diabetes
family history
chronic inflammation of the bladder.

 

What are the Types of Bladder Cancer?

The following are the common types of Bladder Cancer, depending on the type of cell where the cancer begins:

Urothelial carcinoma: is a new term for this type of bladder cancer. It was previously called transitional cell carcinoma or TCC. Urothelial carcinoma accounts for about 90% of all bladder cancers and begins in the urothelium. A tumor of this type may be described further using one of the four subcategories explained below.
Non-muscle-invasive/superficial urothelial carcinoma: This subtype of urothelial carcinoma is limited to the urothelium and is non-muscle-invasive, meaning it has not spread to the muscle layer. It may spread into the lamina propria beneath the transitional cells. This is sometimes called invasive, though it is not the deeply invasive type that can spread to the muscle layer.
Muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (often called invasive urothelial carcinoma): This subtype of urothelial carcinoma spreads to the bladder's muscularis propria and sometimes to the fatty layers or surrounding tissue outside the muscle.
Papillary urothelial carcinoma: Papillary is a word that describes a growth that is like a small polyp or flower-shaped cluster of cancer cells. A noninvasive papillary tumor grows into the hollow center of the bladder on a stalk. Invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma can spread into the lamina propria or muscle layer.
Flat urothelial carcinoma: Noninvasive flat urothelial carcinoma (also called carcinoma in situ, or CIS) grows in the layer of cells closest to the inside of the bladder and appears as flat lesions on the inside surface of the bladder. Invasive flat urothelial carcinoma may invade the deeper layers of the bladder, particularly the muscle layer.
Squamous cell carcinoma: This type accounts for about 4% of all bladder cancers and starts in squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells.
Adenocarcinoma: This type accounts for about 2% of all bladder cancers and begins in glandular cells.

Diagnosis for bladder cancer in Iran:

Tests to diagnose bladder cancer may include:

Blood tests
Blood tests can check you general health.

Urine tests
Urine tests check for blood, bacteria and any cancer or pre-cancer cells.

CT scans
CT scans produce three-dimensional pictures of several organs at the same including the bladder which can help in the detection of any tumours.

Ultrasound scans
Ultrasound scans produce pictures of the organ, and can show the presence and size of cancer. Small tumours may be difficult to detect by ultrasound.

Cystoscopy and biopsy
A cystoscopy is the main procedure used to diagnose bladder cancer by examining the inside of the bladder. If abnormal tissues are detected, a tissue sample (biopsy) will then be taken.

 Treatment

Staging
A CT scan, bone (radioisotope) scan and chest X-ray are done to determine the extent of the cancer (its stage).

The most common staging system used for bladder cancer is the TNM system, which describes the stage of the cancer from stage I to stage IV. Determining the stage of your cancer helps your doctors plan the best treatment for you.

Types of Bladder cancer treatment in Iran:

Superficial bladder cancers are treated with surgery and/or immunotherapy, or sometimes chemotherapy instilled into the bladder.

Surgery
Surgery (transurethral resection) is done using a cystoscope which has a wire loop which the doctor uses to remove any tumours. Other ways to kill the cancer cells can include burning the base of the tumour or high-energy laser to damage or kill the cells

Immunotherapy
Non-invasive bladder cancers an also be treated with immunotherapy. A vaccine called Bacillus Calmetter-Guerin, developed to prevent tuberculosis, can be used to stimulate your immune system in order to stop or delay bladder cancer.

Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy drugs are used to destroy or damage cancer cells. For non-invasive bladder cancers, chemotherapy drugs are instilled into the bladder (intravesical chemotherapy).

Invasive bladder cancers are most commonly treated with surgery, although radiotherapy is an alternative treatment. In some cases chemotherapy may be added.

If surgery is not an option, the cancer may be treated with radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, or chemotherapy alone (platinum and gemcitabine).

Treatment team
Depending on your treatment, your treatment team in iran may consist of a number of different health professionals, such as:

a GP who works with other specialists to coordinate treatment
urologist, who specialises in surgery of the urinary system
radiation oncologist, who prescribes and coordinates radiotherapy treatment
medical oncologist, who prescribes and coordinates the chemotherapy
cancer care coordinators and nurses
other allied health professionals such as a dietician, social worker and counsellor.
Palliative care
In some cases of bladder cancer, your medical team may talk to you about palliative care. Palliative care aims to improve your quality of life by alleviating symptoms of cancer.

As well as slowing the spread of bladder cancer, palliative treatment can relieve pain and help manage other symptoms. Treatment may include radiotherapy, chemotherapy or other drug therapies.

Prognosis for bladder cancer

It is not possible for a doctor to predict the exact course of a disease as it will depend on the person's individual circumstances. However, your doctor may give you a prognosis, the likely outcome of your disease, based on the type of cancer you have, your test results, the rate of tumour growth, as well as your age, fitness and medical history.

Bladder cancer can be effectively treated if it is found early, before it spreads outside the bladder.

Preventing bladder cancer

While it is not possible to prevent bladder cancer, it is possible to reduce your risks such as not smoking or quitting smoking, and avoiding exposure to chemicals listed above.

Bladder cancer treatment cost in iran

How much does a bladder cancer treatment cost in iran?

The cost varies depending on the exact drugs used, how many rounds are given and other factors specific to each patient. Bladder cancer treatment cost in iran start from $ 1500.

1How long will you live if you have bladder cancer?
For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of bladder cancer is 90%, it means that people who have that cancer are, on average, about 90% as likely as people who don't have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.
2Is cancer of the bladder curable?
These cancers can be cured with treatment. During long-term follow-up care, more superficial cancers are often found in the bladder or in other parts of the urinary system. Although these new cancers do need to be treated, they rarely are deeply invasive or life threatening.
3What are the 3 types of bladder cancer?
The 3 main types of bladder cancer are: Urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma (or UCC) accounts for about 90% of all bladder cancers. ... Urothelial carcinoma is sometimes also called transitional cell carcinoma or TCC.
4What are the symptoms of late stage bladder cancer?
The signs and symptoms of bladder cancer that has spread to other parts of the body include: tiredness or weakness. pain when urinating. difficulty urinating or inability to urinate. pain in the lower back on one side of the body. weight loss. swollen feet. bone pain.
5Does bladder cancer spread quickly?
Bladder cancer is an abnormal growth or tumor arising from the lining of the bladder. ... The cells grow abnormally fast causing a tumor to sprout up from the flat lining into a growth projecting into the interior of the bladder cavity. In general, tumors at this stage are not life-threatening.
6What happens if bladder cancer is left untreated?
Approximately a third of the 70,000 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer in the USA in 2009 will have presented with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) requiring aggressive management. Left untreated, most patients with MIBC suffer significant morbidity and die of the disease within 2 years of the diagnosis.
7Is bladder cancer a death sentence?
Andy Williams' Bladder Cancer: No Death Sentence. Singer Andy Williams, 83, stunned his fans on Saturday by announcing that he has bladder cancer. ... Three-quarters of patients are diagnosed when the cancer is in its early stages. And for them, there is at least a five-year, disease-free survival rate of about 75 percent.
8How long can you live with stage 3 bladder cancer?
Stage 3. Around 30 out of 100 men (around 30%) and more than 15 out of 100 women (more than 15%) survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they are diagnosed. Stage 3 means that the cancer has grown through the muscle into the fat layer. It may have spread outside the bladder to the prostate, womb or vagina.
9What is the survival rate of bladder cancer?
Percent means how many out of 100. The general 5-year survival rate for people with bladder cancer is 77%. The overall 10-year survival rate is 70% and the overall 15-year survival rate is 65%. However, survival rates depend on many factors, including the type and stage of bladder cancer that is diagnosed.
10Does bladder cancer have stages?
Stage I: The cancer has grown through the inner lining of the bladder and into the lamina propria. ... It is also called invasive cancer or muscle-invasive cancer. The tumor has not reached the fatty tissue surrounding the bladder and has not spread to the lymph nodes or other organs
11How long can you live with bladder cancer untreated?
Well, I think most of us in this room will agree that if left untreated most patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer will have significant morbidity, and will die from the disease within two years of diagnosis. So, a life expectancy of two years has been suggested to be a benchmark to consider radical cystectomy.
12What is the first sign of bladder cancer?
In most cases, blood in the urine (called hematuria) is the first sign of bladder cancer. There may be enough blood to change the color of the urine to orange, pink, or, less often, dark red.
13How is bladder cancer detected?
Tests and procedures used to diagnose bladder cancer may include: Cystoscopy. ... The cystoscope has a lens that allows your doctor to see the inside of your urethra and bladder, to examine these structures for signs of disease. Biopsy
14How do you pee after bladder removal?
Cystectomy (sis-TEK-tuh-me) is a surgery to remove the urinary bladder. In men, removing the entire bladder (radical cystectomy) typically includes removal of the prostate and seminal vesicles. In women, radical cystectomy also involves removal of the uterus, ovaries and part of the vagina.
15What are the symptoms of stage 2 bladder cancer?
Blood in the urine is often one of the first signs of bladder cancer. You might also have some discomfort or pain when you urinate. Symptoms of stage 2 bladder cancer may also include: frequent urination.
16What is the main cause of bladder cancer?
These abnormal cells form a tumor. Causes of bladder cancer include: Smoking and other tobacco use. Exposure to chemicals, especially working in a job that requires exposure to chemicals

 

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