Treatment of heart disease A heart transplant is an operation that replaces a heart that has failed with a healthy donor heart. Heart transplantation is a treatment that is usually recommended for people who have taken medications or other surgeries but have not recovered. When deciding to have a heart transplant, you must expand your knowledge of the transplantation process, surgery, potential risks and subsequent care.
Heart transplantation is done when other treatments do not work for heart problems and can lead to heart failure.
In adults, heart failure can be caused by several conditions, including:
In children, heart failure is often caused by a congenital heart defect or a heart disease.
Multiple transplant in Iran includes:
This method may work for some people with kidney failure in addition to heart failure.
This method may be for people with specific liver and heart diseases.
Doctors rarely recommend this method for some people with severe lung and heart disease if the condition is not treated with a heart transplant or lung transplant alone.
Heart transplant is not the right treatment for everyone. Some people may not have the proper conditions for transplantation.
For some people who cannot have a heart transplant, another option is the ventricular assist device (VAD). The ventricular assist device is a mechanical pump mounted on the patient's chest to help pump blood from the lower cavities of the heart to other parts of the body. VADs are usually used as a temporary treatment for people who are waiting for a heart transplant. These devices are used as a long-term treatment for people with heart failure who are not eligible for heart transplant. If VAD does not work properly, doctors use artificial heart as a short-term treatment for patients awaiting transplant.
What are the Surgical complications?
heart transplant requires open heart surgery that involves the risk of many complications, including:
The immune system recognizes and attacks the donated heart as an external agent. However, transplant patients are given immunosuppressive drugs. But there is still a 10% chance that the donor heart will be rejected in the first year after the transplant is controlled by the drug.
To determine if your body rejects the new heart, there are frequent heart bypasses to test your heart tissue during the first year after transplant. After this period, their number decreases.
After transplantation, the arterial walls in the heart (coronary arteries) may become thicker and harder, leading to cardiac catheter vasculopathy (CAV). This can make it difficult for the blood to circulate through the heart and cause a heart attack, heart failure, abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) or sudden cardiac death.
doctor may recommend annual tests to monitor coronary arteries for CAV after transplantation.
Immunosuppressant drugs can cause kidney damage and other problems. Other side effects of these drugs may include:
Anti_depressants drugs can also increase the risk of cancer. Taking these medicines can put you at greater risk for skin cancer, lymphoma, and other tumors. Regular screening is essential to diagnose cancer development.
The patient's ability to fight infection decreases. Some heart transplant recipients may become infected after being transplanted to hospital. The risk of infection decreases by passing time.
Preparation for the transplant is done before the transplant. This may take days to years. That patient is in the queue for the donating heart.
After the doctor recommends the transplant to the patient. Must refer to transplant centers. Find out more about transplant coverage at your insurance center first.
When evaluating a heart transplant center, consider the number of heart transplants a center does each year and the recipient's survival rate.
Evaluation to check if the patient:
Then, if eligible, the patient's name is recorded as a waiting list member. Usually the number of donors is always less than the number of patients and some people may die before a healthy donation heart is found.
During the waiting period for transplantation, even treatment may change several times as the patient's condition changes. For this purpose, the patient is monitored by a medical team.
After finding the heart for the transplant, tests are performed to confirm whether the recipient's heart is appropriate. Including:
The heart transplant must be performed within four hours of receiving the organ from the donor so that it can be used. As a result, the hearts are first transported to a transplant center and then to the recipient hospital centers.
Cardiac transplant surgery is open heart surgery that takes several hours. If you have had previous heart surgery, the surgery is more complicated and will take longer. Preoperative general anesthesia medications are first administered. The patient is then connected to a heart and lung control device to control blood flow throughout the body.
The surgeon cuts through the patient's breastbone to open the chest.
The surgeon removes the defective heart and replaces the new one. Connects the main arteries to the heart. Electric shock may also be required during this procedure.
You need medication after surgery. They then monitor the patient's condition with the help of a respirator and tubes that discharge the fluid that accumulates around the lung.
After surgery, you will also receive fluids and medications through intravenous (IV) tubes.
After surgery, the patient is transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU).
After a few days you will be transferred to the ward and will be hospitalized for two to three weeks.
The time spent in the ICU and in the hospital, however, may vary.
After being discharged from the hospital, she is also monitored by a post-operative surveillance team. To check any patient's condition.
After the heart transplant, there will be several follow-up steps at the transplant center. Regular tests, including blood tests, echocardiograms, electrocardiograms and cardiac biopsies.
Medications are used to reduce the activity of the immune system to reduce the risk of heart attack. Because the body's immune system most likely never fully adopts the new organ, some of these drugs should be taken for life.
Antidepressants can cause significant side effects. For example, when taking post-transplant medications, such as corticosteroids, you gain weight.
You may have excessive hair or stomach problems.
Some side effects of immunosuppressants may be more noticeable when you first start your medication, but they may decrease over time.
As the immune system activity became diminished, the body becomes more vulnerable to infection. Your doctor may also prescribe antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal medications.
Some medications may increase the risk of hypertension, high cholesterol, cancer, osteoporosis or diabetes.
Over time, the risk of graft rejection decreases. The dose of the medication also changes.
New medical treatments and stress of having a heart transplant may make you tired. Many people who have had a heart transplant feel that way.
Talk to your doctor if you feel stressed or depressed. Link centers often have support groups and other resources to help you manage your situation.