Ovarian cysts are common for women who are still in their menstrual days. You may have had at least one cyst but may never know as it goes away on its own. Complications may arise when the cyst does not go away or may form into a bigger size. The ovaries are a pair of reproductive organs in the female body responsible for the release of an egg every month and, producing female estrogen and progesterone.
Ovarian cysts are fluid accumulated in the ovaries covered by a thin shell that can be small and harmless. They can be as small as a pea or big like a pregnant womb. A problem arises when they become larger in size, when they twist, or when they burst inside the ovary. This could cause the blood supply to the ovaries being stopped and if it is not treated, it could damage the ovaries tissues. Cysts can also be cancerous. These situations call for surgery as they also cause symptoms.
Ovarian cyst can be removed by surgery which can either be through a small incision called Laparoscopy for a smaller cyst or a larger abdominal incision called Laparotomy for a cyst that may be cancerous.
In most cases, ovarian cysts do not show any signs of discomfort. But the symptoms can appear if the cyst tends to grow. It may include
Pain in the thighs or lower back
Vomiting and nausea
Pelvic pain during or before periods
Painful bowel movements
Abdominal swelling or bloating
Feeling full only after eating a small amount
Feeling the urge to defecate
Some severe symptoms that require immediate medical help include
Sharp or severe pelvic pain
Dizziness or faintness
These symptoms are the signs of ovarian torsion or ruptured cyst. Both these complications are required to be taken seriously as it can have severe consequences on your health if not treated early.
There are several factors that cause ovarian cysts and most of them are not cancerous.
It is an infection caused in the pelvic organs involving the fallopian tubes and the ovaries. This infection causes the formation of pus-filled cystic spaces around the ovaries and tubes.
Benign Cystic Teratomas:
Both malignant and benign tumors of the ovary may be cystic. The ovaries experience the abnormal tissue development forming cyst-like structures, but they are actually tumors.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome:
This condition results in the formation of small and multiple cysts on both ovaries. This condition is associated with hormonal problems and can cause infertility in women.
Diagnosing Ovarian Cysts
Doctors at RG Stone follows a multitude of diagnostic procedures for testing and diagnosing ovarian cysts. It includes a routine pelvic examination, looking for a swelled-up ovary, and more.
In case, if the doctor feels like the conditions are worse, he/she may issue imaging tools for diagnosing ovarian cysts.
Ultrasound Device: this tool is used for visualizing the ovaries
MRI: this device is used to produce the in-depth images of the internal organs
CT Scan: this device is used to create cross-sectional images of the internal organs
Due to the fact that the cysts only appears for few weeks or months, the doctor will not instantly recommend a treatment plan such as the ovarian cysts surgery. Instead, the doctor will repeat the diagnosis and tests for few more weeks to check whether the cyst is growing or diminishing.
Some, called functional cysts, or simple cysts, are part of the normal process of menstruation. They have nothing to do with disease, and can be treated. There are 3 types, Graafian, Luteal, and Hemorrhagic. Book your appointment with the ovarian cyst specialist in Iran to get treatment for Ovarian Cysts in Iran.
Graafian follicle cyst
One type of simple cyst, which is the most common type of ovarian cyst, is the graafian follicle cyst, follicular cyst, or dentigerous cyst. This type can form when ovulation doesn't occur, and a follicle doesn't rupture or release its egg but instead grows until it becomes a cyst, or when a mature follicle involutes (collapses on itself). It usually forms during ovulation, and can grow to about 2.3 inches in diameter. It is thin-walled, lined by one or more layers of granulosa cell, and filled with clear fluid. Its rupture can create sharp, severe pain on the side of the ovary on which the cyst appears. This sharp pain (sometimes called mittelschmerz) occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle, during ovulation. About a fourth of women with this type of cyst experience pain. Usually, these cysts produce no symptoms and disappear by themselves within a few months. Ultrasound is the primary tool used to document the follicular cyst. A pelvic exam will also aid in the diagnosis if the cyst is large enough to be seen. A doctor monitors these to make sure they disappear, and looks at treatment options if they do not.
Corpus luteum cyst
Another is a corpus luteum cyst (which may rupture about the time of menstruation, and take up to three months to disappear entirely). This type of functional cyst occurs after an egg has been released from a follicle. The follicle then becomes a secretory gland that is known as the corpus luteum. The ruptured follicle begins producing large quantities of estrogen and progesterone in preparation for conception. If a pregnancy doesn't occur, the corpus luteum usually breaks down and disappears. It may, however, fill with fluid or blood, causing the corpus luteum to expand into a cyst, and stay on the ovary. Usually, this cyst is on only one side, and does not produce any symptoms.
It can however grow to almost 4 inches in diameter and has the potential to bleed into itself or twist the ovary, causing pelvic or abdominal pain. If it fills with blood, the cyst may rupture, causing internal bleeding and sudden, sharp pain. The fertility drug clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serophene), used to induce ovulation, increases the risk of a corpus luteum cyst developing after ovulation. These cysts don't prevent or threaten a resulting pregnancy. Women on birth control pills usually do not form these cysts; in fact, preventing these cysts is one way the combined pill works. In contrast, the progesterone-only pill can cause increased frequency of these cysts.
A third type of functional cyst, which is common, is a Hemorrhagic cyst, which is also called a blood cyst, hematocele, and hematocyst. It occurs when a very small blood vessel in the wall of the cyst breaks, and the blood enters the cyst. Abdominal pain on one side of the body, often the right side, may be present. The bleeding may occur quickly, and rapidly stretch the covering of the ovary, causing pain. As the blood collects within the ovary, clots form which can be seen on a sonogram. Occasionally hemorrhagic cysts can rupture, with blood entering the abdominal cavity. No blood is seen