Rectal Cancer Staging

Stages of Rectal Cancer

No matter where it starts, cancer can spread, or metastasize, through tissue, the lymph system, or the bloodstream to reach other parts of the body.

Staging cancer indicates how far the cancer has progressed, which can help your doctor decide the best treatment.

The following stages are used for rectal cancer:

Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)

In stage 0 rectal cancer, abnormal cells are found in the mucosa (innermost layer) of the rectum wall. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.

Read more about : Colon cancer stage 4

Stage I

In stage I rectal cancer, cancer has formed in the mucosa (innermost layer) of the rectum wall and has spread to the submucosa (layer of tissue next to the mucosa) or to the muscle layer of the rectum wall.

Read more about : Colon cancer treatment

Stage II

Stage II rectal cancer is divided into stages IIA, IIB, and IIC.

. Stage IIA: Cancer has spread through the muscle layer of the rectum wall to the serosa (outermost layer) of the rectum wall.

. Stage IIB: Cancer has spread through the serosa (outermost layer) of the rectum wall to the tissue that lines the organs in the abdomen (visceral peritoneum).

. Stage IIC: Cancer has spread through the serosa (outermost layer) of the rectum wall to nearby organs.

Stage III

Stage III rectal cancer is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC.

In stage IIIA, cancer has spread:

Read more about : Stage 3 rectal cancer survival rate by age

. Through the mucosa (innermost layer) of the rectum wall to the submucosa (layer of tissue next to the mucosa) or to the muscle layer of the rectum wall. Cancer has spread to one to three nearby lymph nodes or cancer cells have formed in tissue near the lymph nodes; or

. Through the mucosa (innermost layer) of the rectum wall to the submucosa (layer of tissue next to the mucosa). Cancer has spread to four to six nearby lymph nodes.

Read more about : Cancer treatment

In stage IIIB, cancer has spread:

. Through the muscle layer of the rectum wall to the serosa (outermost layer) of the rectum wall or has spread through the serosa to the tissue that lines the organs in the abdomen (visceral peritoneum). Cancer has spread to one to three nearby lymph nodes or cancer cells have formed in tissue near the lymph nodes; or

. To the muscle layer or to the serosa (outermost layer) of the rectum wall. Cancer has spread to four to six nearby lymph nodes; or

. Through the mucosa (innermost layer) of the rectum wall to the submucosa (layer of tissue next to the mucosa) or to the muscle layer of the rectum wall. Cancer has spread to seven or more nearby lymph nodes.

Read more about : Colorectal cancer staging

In stage IIIC, cancer has spread:

. Through the serosa (outermost layer) of the rectum wall to the tissue that lines the organs in the abdomen (visceral peritoneum). Cancer has spread to four to six nearby lymph nodes; or

. Through the muscle layer of the rectum wall to the serosa (outermost layer) of the rectum wall or has spread through the serosa to the tissue that lines the organs in the abdomen (visceral peritoneum). Cancer has spread to seven or more nearby lymph nodes; or

. Through the serosa (outermost layer) of the rectum wall to nearby organs. Cancer has spread to one or more nearby lymph nodes or cancer cells have formed in tissue near the lymph nodes.

Stage IV

Stage IV rectal cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC.

. Stage IVA: Cancer has spread to one area or organ that is not near the rectum, such as the liver, lung, ovary, or a distant lymph node.

. Stage IVB: Cancer has spread to more than one area or organ that is not near the rectum, such as the liver, lung, ovary, or a distant lymph node.

. Stage IVC: Cancer has spread to the tissue that lines the wall of the abdomen and may have spread to other areas or organs.

Read more about : Chemotherapy

Read more about : Radiation therapy

 

10 common questions about Rectal Cancer Staging

1Where does rectal cancer spread first?
The most common site of metastases for colon or rectal cancer is the liver. Colorectal cancer cells may also spread to the lungs, bones, brain or spinal cord. If you have been treated for colorectal cancer and cancer cells have been found in these areas, it may be a sign that the original colorectal cancer has spread.
2What is stage 3 rectal cancer?
Stage III rectal cancer is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. ... Cancer has spread through the mucosa of the rectum wall to the submucosa and may have spread to the muscle layer, and has spread to one to three nearby lymph nodes or tissues near the lymph nodes
3Can Stage 3 rectal cancer be cured?
Stage III rectal cancers have spread to nearby lymph nodes but not to other parts of the body. Most people with stage III rectal cancer will be treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, although the order of these treatments might differ. ... After surgery, chemo is given, usually for about 6 months
4How long do you live with rectal cancer?
Currently, there are around 1 million colorectal cancer survivors in the United States. Overall, the 5-year survival rate tells you what percent of people live at least 5 years after the cancer is found. Percent means how many out of 100. The 5-year survival rate for people with colorectal cancer is 65%.
5Is rectal cancer worse than colon cancer?
Among them, colon cancer patients had better survival than those with rectal cancer, by a margin of 4 months in stage IIB. ... The prognosis of rectal cancer was not worse than that of colon cancer. Local advanced colorectal cancer had a poorer prognosis than local regional lymph node metastasis.
6Is rectal cancer painful?
The most common symptoms of rectal cancer are a change in bowel habits, such as constipation or diarrhea, narrow shaped stools, or blood in your stool. You may also have pelvic or lower abdominal pain, unexplained weight loss, or feel tired all the time.
7Can you feel rectal cancer?
A person may feel cramp-like pain in the stomach. The stool may be streaked or mixed with blood. In rectal cancer, the most common symptom is usually bleeding when going to the bathroom. Cancer of the rectum should be considered whenever there is rectal bleeding, even if other causes such as hemorrhoids are present.
8Is rectal cancer slow growing?
Rectal cancer is a slow-growing but dangerous cancer Most colorectal cancers begin as a growth on the inner lining of the colon or rectum. This growth is called a “polyp.” Polyps don't always become cancer
9How does a person get rectal cancer?
Rectal cancer develops usually over years; its actual cause is not known, but risk factors include increasing age (over 50), smoking, family history, high-fat diet, or a history of polyps or colorectal cancer or inflammatory bowel disease.
10Is rectal cancer fatal?
Recurrent Cancer In the early stages, colon cancer is one of the most curable cancers. In the later stages, it is the second most deadly. Colon cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in America (lung cancer is the first)

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