Tumors are made up of cells that are reproducing at abnormally high rates. Radiation therapy specifically acts against cells that are reproducing rapidly. Normal cells are programmed to stop reproducing (or dividing) when they come into contact with other cells. In the case of a tumor, this stop mechanism is missing, causing cells to continue to divide over and over. It is the DNA of the cell that makes it capable of reproducing.
Radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays to damage the DNA of cells, thereby killing the cancer cells, or at least stopping them from reproducing. Radiation also damages normal cells, but because normal cells are growing more slowly, they are better able to repair this radiation damage than are cancer cells.
In order to give normal cells time to heal and to reduce a patient's side effects, radiation treatments are typically given in small daily doses, five days a week, over a six-or seven-week period. It is estimated that more than 50% of cancer patients will receive radiation at some point during their treatment.
radiotherapy-treatmentRadiotherapy works by destroying cancer cells in the affected areas. Normal cells can also be damaged by radiotherapy, which may cause side effects. Cancer cells cannot repair themselves after radiotherapy but normal cells usually can.
The type of radiotherapy you’re given will depend on the type of cancer you are battling.
Goals of radiotherapy treatment
Radiotherapy is normally given to try and destroy tumors and cure the cancer. It may also be used with other treatments such as surgery and chemotherapy.
Doctors may give radiotherapy to help relieve the symptoms or side effects that you have, if it’s not possible to cure the cancer.
There are two main types of radiation therapy : -
external radiation therapy, where a beam of radiation is directed from outside the body, and internal radiation therapy, also called brachytherapy or implant therapy, where a source of radioactivity is surgically placed inside the body near the tumor.
1.External radiation in iran
External radiation may also be called x-ray therapy, cobalt therapy, proton therapy, or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). This type of radiation is administered using a machine called a linear accelerator. Treatment can be given once or twice a day, depending on the treatment protocol being used.
Treatments are given 5 days a week for several weeks, depending on the total final dose of radiation that is planned. Patients are given a break from treatment on weekend days to give normal cells some time to heal, thus reducing side effects. A person receiving external radiation therapy is not radioactive or dangerous to the people around him or her.
2.Internal radiation therapy in iran
Internal radiation therapy places the source of the high-energy rays inside the body, as close as possible to the cancer cells. This may be done by implanting "seeds" (small pieces of the radioactive substance) or by using an implanted reservoir, into which a liquid radioactive substance is injected. This delivers very intense radiation to a small area of the body and limits the dose to normal tissue. Internal radiation therapy allows the doctor to give a higher total dose of radiation in a shorter time than is possible with external treatments.
The radioactive substances used (also called the "radiation source") typically include radium, cesium, iodine, and phosphorus. Depending on the substance, the implant may be temporary or permanent, although the effect wears off over time in all cases. Depending on the type of radiation source, patients with radiation implants may need to be isolated from visitors for a period of time, so as not to expose others to radioactivity.
You've probably seen an X-ray of your teeth or some other part of your body. At high doses - many times greater than those used for X-ray exams - radiation can kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. More than half of all cancer patients receive some radiation therapy as part of their treatment.
The cost of radiation therapy or any cancer treatment is an additional burden on anyone’s mind while thinking of getting the treatment, be it for yourself or a family member.
It is very important that the health and well-being of the patient is the first thing that influences the decision to choose radiation therapy and not the cost. In most cases taking a radiation therapy or any cancer treatment for that matter, is a necessity not an option.
For this, you need to go to the best radiation oncologists practicing in a renowned hospital. However, the cost of this varies from one city to another all around the world.
The cost of radiation therapy in Iran start from $140
Radiation therapy damages healthy cells along with the cancer cells, and this damage can cause side effects. Most of the body's healthy cells recover after the therapy is stopped. The side effects you may get depend on your radiation dose and what body parts are treated.
Hair loss on the treated body part
Skin irritation like a bad sunburn on the treated body part
Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, if the abdomen is treated
Mouth sores, a sore throat or dry mouth, if the head or neck is treated
These side effects usually go away within a few weeks when the treatment is finished.
There can also be long-term side effects months or years after treatment. These side effects depend on your age, how much radiation you get and what body parts are treated
Damage to the lungs or other organs
Cataracts (caused by TBI)
Delays in growth and the ability to learn for some children
Risk of getting leukemia or other cancer years later (when given along with chemotherapy)
Head and neck cancer
Iran has innumerable cancer cases each year with expensive surgeries, treatments, chemotherapy and radiotherapy sessions. The treatment cost of radiation therapy may cost anywhere is too much but in iran you can get radiotherapy treatment with affprdable price.