Reconstructive surgery is performed to treat structures of the body affected aesthetically or functionally by congenital defects, developmental abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors or disease.
Reconstructive surgery in Iran is, in its broadest sense, synonymous with plastic surgery. Commonly, however, reconstructive surgery is understood as the use of surgery to restore the form and function of the body, which does not include aesthetic or cosmetic surgery. For example, plastic surgeons, maxillo-facial surgeons and otolaryngologists do reconstructive surgery on faces after trauma and to reconstruct the head and neck after cancer.
Other branches of surgery (e.g., general surgery, gynecological surgery, pediatric surgery, plastic surgery, podiatric surgery) also perform some reconstructive procedures. The common feature is that the operation attempts to restore the anatomy or the function of the body part to normal.
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Reconstructive surgeons use the concept of a reconstructive ladder to manage increasingly complex wounds. This ranges from very simple techniques such as primary closure and dressings to more complex skin grafts, tissue expansion and free flaps.
Cosmetic surgery procedures include breast enhancement, reduction and lift, face lift, forehead lift, upper and lower eyelid surgery (blepharoplasty), laser skin resurfacing (laser resurfacing), chemical peel, nose reshaping (rhinoplasty), reconstruction liposuction, nasal reconstruction using the paramedian flap, as well as tummy tuck (abdominoplasty).
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Within the following pages, we present some of the most common benefits and risks of these procedures. No surgical procedure is without risk. A discussion of all potential benefits and complications should be held during consultation with a board-certified plastic surgeon.
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Cosmetic or aesthetic plastic surgery is performed to change body shape or appearance, usually when no medical condition is present. Reconstructive plastic surgery generally involves treatment of conditions that have caused an abnormal change in body shape or appearance.
Many reconstructive surgeries use microvascular techniques. This is also called “free flap surgery.” In this type of surgery, the surgeon takes tissue and blood vessels from 1 part of the person’s body and moves them to the damaged part. This is called transplantation. The surgeon connects the blood vessels using small stitches only visible with a microscope. The stitches connect the tissue and blood vessels to those at the new site. For example, head and neck surgery sometimes changes the jawbone shape. A reconstructive surgeon may transplant bone from the leg to the face. This restores the jawbone’s shape and often its function.
While every patient and surgical procedure is different, there are some general timelines you can expect your cosmetic surgery recovery to follow.
Whether you are interested in a cosmetic procedure or plastic surgery, surgical facial procedures like rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, and facelifts take anywhere from six to 12 months for full results to be realized.
Blepharoplasty is a surgical procedure that improves the appearance of the eyelids by removing excess skin or fat deposits. Both upper and lower eyelid surgeries are available, and they may be classified as either a plastic and reconstructive procedure or aesthetic surgery depending on the reason for the procedure.
Known as a browplasty, brow lift, or forehead lift, the surgery involves raising the eyebrows to a more youthful position to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, sagging skin, and hooded eyelids.
Nose jobs can be ‘functional’ (i.e. medically necessary) or ‘cosmetic’ (read: elective), but both types of rhinoplasty procedures require patients to be patient during the healing process.
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The gold standard of facial rejuvenation, a facelift surgery has the ability to treat facial sagging and volume loss by lifting and firming the face.
During a neck lift procedure, incisions are made along the hairline and ear to remove excess skin and fat. A lower rhytidectomy yields a more defined neck and jawline, in addition to removing jowls.
Despite the advent of non-surgical hair restoration treatments, surgical hair transplants remain the go-to for patients looking to correct baldness and hair thinning. While initial results will be seen in the first four to five months, 12 to 18 months may be needed for full recovery.
The two main types of surgical hair transplants are the follicular unit extraction (FUE) technique and the follicular unit transplant (FUT) method. The former involves transplanting individual hair follicles, while the latter extracts a strip of hair. Both types of procedures have a similar recovery period.
From breast surgery (think: augmentation, reduction, and lift) to tummy tucks, there are an array of surgical body contouring procedures that, after the initial downtime and recovery process, provide long lasting results.
Whether it’s performed alone or as part of a larger mommy makeover, body lift, or post-weight loss procedure, a tummy tuck removes excess skin and excess fat, in addition to restoring muscle definition, for a more contoured abdomen.
Breast augmentation can involve breast implants, autologous fat transfers, or a hybrid of the two. In the case of implant and hybrid procedures, a secondary surgery will be needed to replace the implants after eight to 10 years. Patients who choose an autologous fat transfer can expect to lose 30 to 40 percent of the volume to reabsorption. Nonetheless, patients can expect similar recovery times for each type.
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Like an breast augmentation with fat transfer, a butt lift involves transferring fat from one part of the body to the buttocks for improved shape and contour. Generally speaking, 60 to 80 percent of fat transfer typically survives.
Liposuction is typically performed as part of a larger surgery (think: a tummy tuck) or to complement another procedure. Regardless of the purpose, it results in permanent fat loss.
A breast lift surgery improves the projection and shape of the breast by removing excess skin and tightening the surrounding tissue.
To alleviate any pain or discomfort caused by large breasts, a breast reduction permanently removes excess skin and fat.
Breast reconstruction is major surgery. A person can expect to spend several days in the hospital after both implant reconstruction and flap reconstruction. People may need more than one surgery to fully reconstruct the breast(s). Skin flap surgery has a longer recovery time than reconstruction using implants.
The possible risks of breast reconstruction include, but are not limited to, bleeding, infection, poor healing of incisions and anesthesia risks. You should also know that: Flap surgery includes the risk of partial or complete loss of the flap and a loss of sensation at both the donor and reconstruction site.
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