Ovarian tumor removal surgery

ovarian tumor removal surgery in Iran

What are the stages of ovarian cancer?

What are ovarian tumor causes?

Preparing for ovarian tumor removal surgery

During the ovarian tumor removal surgery

Aftercare of ovarian tumor removal surgery

How long does it take to heal from ovary removal?

How long does it take to recuperate after laparoscopic oophorectomy?

What happens when one ovary is removed?

Ovarian tumor removal surgery 

 Surgery is the main treatment and diagnostic tool for most ovarian cancers. The goal is to see how far your cancer has spread, and to remove as much of the tumor as possible.

The type of operation you’ll have depends on the stage of your cancer and your health. Usually the surgeon will remove your uterus, ovaries, and both fallopian tubes. She may also need to remove other tissue in your abdomen if the cancer has spread. Your surgeon will do the procedure that will give you the best result with the fewest side effects.

What are the stages of ovarian cancer?

these are the four stages for ovarian cancer:

Stage I (stage 1 ovarian cancer): The cancer is confined to the ovaries and hasn’t spread to the abdomen, pelvis or lymph nodes, or to distant sites.

Stage II (stage 2 ovarian cancer): The cancer is in one or both ovaries and has spread to the pelvic region, such as the fallopian tubes or uterus.

Stage III (stage 3 ovarian cancer): The cancer is in one or both ovaries, and the cancer has either spread beyond the pelvis to the lining of the abdomen or the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the back of the abdomen.

Stage IV (stage 4 ovarian cancer): In the most advanced stage of ovarian cancer, the cancer has metastasized to distant sites, such as the inside of the spleen, liver, lungs or other organs outside the abdomen and pelvic region.

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Symptoms of an ovarian cyst

An ovarian cyst usually only causes symptoms if it splits (ruptures), is very large or blocks the blood supply to the ovaries.

In these cases, you may have:

  • pelvic pain – this can range from a dull, heavy sensation to a sudden, severe and sharp pain
  • pain during sex
  • difficulty emptying your bowels
  • a frequent need to urinate
  • heavy periods, irregular periods or lighter periods than normal
  • bloating and a swollen tummy
  • feeling very full after only eating a little
  • difficulty getting pregnant although fertility is usually unaffected by ovarian cysts

Types of ovarian tumor:

  • Epithelial ovarian cancer

Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common type of ovarian cancer. Primary peritoneal cancer and fallopian tube cancer are similar to epithelial ovarian cancer and are treated in the same way.

  • Germ cell ovarian tumors

Germ cell ovarian tumors are rare and usually affect girls and young women up to their early 30's. Ovarian teratoma is the most common type.

  • Sex cord stromal tumors

Sex cord stromal ovarian tumors can be non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). Granulosa cell tumors are the most common type.

  • Borderline ovarian tumors

Borderline ovarian tumors are abnormal cells that form in the tissue covering the ovary. They are not cancer and are usually cured with surgery.

 What are the symptoms of ovarian tumor?

An ovarian cyst usually only causes symptoms if it splits (ruptures), is very large or blocks the blood supply to the ovaries.

In these cases, you may have:

  • pelvic pain – this can range from a dull, heavy sensation to a sudden, severe and sharp pain
  • pain during sex
  • difficulty emptying your bowels
  • a frequent need to urinate
  • heavy periods, irregular periods or lighter periods than normal
  • bloating and a swollen tummy
  • feeling very full after only eating a little
  • difficulty getting pregnant – although fertility is unaffected in most women with ovarian cysts

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What are ovarian tumor causes?

It's not clear what causes ovarian cancer, though doctors have identified factors that can increase the risk of the disease.

In general, cancer begins when a cell develops errors (mutations) in its DNA. The mutations tell the cell to grow and multiply quickly, creating a mass (tumor) of abnormal cells. The abnormal cells continue living when healthy cells would die. They can invade nearby tissues and break off from an initial tumor to spread elsewhere in the body (metastasize).

Preparing for ovarian tumor removal surgery

Once a plan is in place for your ovarian cancer surgery you will be given a date for your operation. This may happen quite quickly.

Some tests will be carried out to ensure that you are physically well enough to undergo the operation. These may include blood tests, an ECG to check your heart rate, and some general questions about any medications you’re currently taking.

During your stay in hospital you will be visited by your surgeon and the anaesthetist - a specialist doctor in charge of giving you your anaesthetic for the operation. They will explain what they will be doing and answer any questions you have. You will also be asked to sign a consent form that gives them permission to perform the operation.

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During the ovarian tumor removal surgery

The aim of this operation is to remove all of the cancer.

The surgeon usually removes:

  • the ovaries and fallopian tubes (called a bilateral salpingo‑oophorectomy or BSO)
  • the womb and cervix (called a total abdominal hysterectomy or TAH)
  • the omentum (called an omentectomy).

During the operation, the surgeon:

  • takes samples (biopsies) from other areas nearby
  • may remove some of the lymph nodes in the abdomen and pelvis
  • puts fluid into the abdomen and collects it again (called abdominal or peritoneal washing).

After the operation, everything that the surgeon removed is sent to the laboratory and carefully examined. This gives more information about the type and stage of the cancer. This information helps your team decide if you are likely to need further treatment.

If you are still having periods, this surgery will bring on your menopause and you will not be able to get pregnant. Your surgeon or nurse will explain what to expect before you have surgery.

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Aftercare of ovarian tumor removal surgery

There are some things that should be avoided after surgery to give the body a chance to recover. Some general tips are given below:

  • Avoid lifting heavy things for about six weeks to allow the body to heal. It's a good idea to leave tasks such as vacuuming or cleaning to someone else until you feel able to do them. If you live alone or need assistance with work around the house this may be able to be arranged.
  • Avoid driving a car until given clearance to do so by a doctor.
  • Sexual intercourse is usually best avoided for about six weeks. Discuss this with the doctor or treatment team.

Surgery to treat ovarian cancer is a major operation. It can take up to 3 months to fully recover.

You'll need to take things very easy for at least the first couple of weeks. Rest as much as possible and try to avoid spending too long on your feet.

You can start to gradually return to your normal activities in the following weeks, but be careful not to do too much too soon.

Your care team will let you know about anything you need to avoid while you recover. For example:

  • you'll probably need to take 1 to 3 months off work
  • you might not be able to drive for around a month
  • you may need to avoid strenuous lifting or heavy exercise for at least 3 months

A physiotherapist may help you come up with an exercise plan to help your recovery.

If both your ovaries have been removed and you haven't been through the menopause, you'll experience it after treatment.

Your doctor may suggest taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to control any menopausal symptoms at least until you reach the natural age for the menopause (between 45 and 55).

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How long does it take to heal from ovary removal?

Your doctor will give you instructions about your return to an active lifestyle after ovary removal surgery. But, in general, how quickly you can return to normal activities depends on your overall medical condition before surgery, the reason for your surgery, and the way your surgery was done. Most women return to an active life about 6 weeks after surgery. Women who had laparoscopic surgery or robot-assisted surgery generally have quicker recoveries of about 2 weeks.

How long does it take to recuperate after laparoscopic oophorectomy?

Recovery time is different for everybody. After laparoscopic surgery, you may be able to return to your normal routine two weeks after surgery. For abdominal surgery, it can take up to six weeks or more for a full recovery.

Your doctor will be able to give you an idea of recovery time based on your personal health profile.

If you had one ovary removed and still have your uterus, you’ll still have periods and will notice little change. If you had both ovaries removed, you’re now postmenopausal.

What happens when one ovary is removed?

Removal of one ovary still allows a woman to continue to menstruate and to have children, as long as the remaining ovary is not damaged. When both ovaries are removed, menstrual periods stop, a woman can no longer become pregnant, and estrogen and progesterone are no longer produced by the reproductive system.

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10 common questions about ovarian tumor removal surgery in Iran

1Is removing an ovary major surgery?
An oophorectomy is a surgical procedure to remove one or both of a woman's ovaries. The surgery is usually performed to prevent or treat certain conditions, such as ovarian cancer or endometriosis
2What are the side effects of having one ovary removed?
Ovary & fallopian tube removal side effects & risks Women who have not gone through menopause but have both of their ovaries removed will experience a premature menopause and may have symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, decreased sex drive, heart disease, depression or anxiety.
3How long does it take to recover from ovary removal?
six to eight weeks After the ovarian cyst has been removed, you'll feel pain in your tummy, although this should improve in a day or two. Following laparoscopic surgery, you'll probably need to take things easy for two weeks. Recovery after a laparotomy usually takes longer, possibly around six to eight weeks.
4What is removed during ovarian cancer surgery?
For patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer during surgery, the first phase of treatment is surgical laparotomy or exploration of the abdomen. ... Typical debulking during the laparotomy includes: A total hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes)
5How long do you stay in hospital after ovary removal?
For those procedures, you may stay in the hospital one day or be released the same day. You may stay in the hospital several days after an open procedure
6How long is recovery after having an ovary removed?
After laparoscopic surgery, you may be able to return to your normal routine two weeks after surgery. For abdominal surgery, it can take up to six weeks or more for a full recovery. Your doctor will be able to give you an idea of recovery time based on your personal health profile.
7Can an ovary grow back after removal?
An ovarian cyst can be removed from an ovary (cystectomy), preserving the ovary and your fertility. But it is possible for a new cyst to form on the same or opposite ovary after a cystectomy. New cysts can only be completely prevented by removing the ovaries (oophorectomy).
8Do you gain weight after ovary removal?
If you do have your ovaries removed during the procedure, you'll immediately enter menopause. This process can last for several years, but women gain an average of 5 pounds after going through menopause. You might also gain some weight as you recover from the procedure.
9What happens if only one ovary is removed?
If only one ovary is removed and not your uterus, you will continue to be fertile and have menstrual periods. However, you may experience an earlier menopause. If both ovaries are removed, you will experience surgical menopause.
10What to expect when having ovaries removed?
Once you're home from the hospital, you will need to limit physical activities such as driving, exercise, and heavy lifting for 2-6 weeks, depending on the type of surgery. For laparoscopic surgery, it may be 3 or more weeks before you have all your energy back and for abdominal surgery, about 4-6 weeks

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