Thyroidectomy is a surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland. It is advised when one of the following conditions namely Cancer, Non-cancerous enlargement of nodule, Hyperthyroidism, Cosmetic reason, is found in a person. Iranian surgery is a medical value provider helping overseas patients get thyroidectomy surgery in Iran with the best thyroid surgeons at the best hospitals for thyroid surgery in Iran.
The overall mean cost of outpatient thyroidectomy surgery in the world is around $5000, But in iran, thyroidectomy surgery cost start from $790.
Thyroid is a small gland that is located in the lower front part of the neck below the voice box. The thyroid gland produces hormones that help to regulate metabolism. It is also instrumental in helping the body organs to function properly and also helps to conserve body heat. Thyroid surgery is required when the thyroid gland malfunctions and produces excess hormones. This may result in swelling and growth of cyst or nodules and other problems. The main symptoms of thyroid disorder are increase in body weight, hair loss, changes in mood, constipation, blurred vision, muscle weakness, brittleness of the nails, dry skin, constipation, feeling of numbness and even a swollen neck.
The most common reason why thyroid surgery is carried out is the presence of nodules or tumors on the thyroid gland. Nodules can be cancerous or precancerous and lead to a lot of complications. Thyroid surgery can cure a condition called hyperthyroidism. This condition is caused when benign nodules stimulate the thyroid to produce more hormones than is actually necessary. Graves’ disease is a peculiar condition where the body misidentifies the thyroid gland as a foreign body and attacks it. The antibodies that attack the thyroid gland cause the production of excess of thyroid hormones and this leads to hyperthyroidism. Thyroid surgery can also treat goiter, which is a condition that results in the swelling or enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Thyroid surgery is generally done under general anesthesia. Anesthesia is given in the form of liquid injection or gas through a mask and then a breathing tube is placed in the trachea to help the patient breathe. Several monitors are also placed on the body of the patient to ensure that the heart rate, blood pressure and blood oxygen remains at optimum levels throughout the procedure.
1. Thyroid lobectomy
This operation involves removing the half of the thyroid gland that has the nodule. It is sometimes called a "diagnostic lobectomy" because the preoperative diagnosis may be uncertain and part of the reason for the operation is to make a diagnosis of cancer or no cancer. These patients may have had a FNA biopsy result that is non-diagnostic, suspicious for malignancy, or shows a follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasm.
All patients that have one half of the thyroid gland removed will need to have their thyroid levels checked sometime after surgery. Depending on these levels, some patients may need thyroid hormone replacement and some patients will not.
2. Total or Near-total thyroidectomy
This operation involves removing all or nearly all of the thyroid gland. It may be done for benign thyroid conditions that affect both thyroid lobes, such as large goiter or Graves' disease, or it may be done for cancer. A near-total thyroidectomy means that the surgeon decided to leave a very small amount of benign thyroid tissue behind. Thyroid tissue may be intentionally left behind in areas around important structures, such as the nerves that control the voice, swallowing, and breathing, or the parathyroid glands. All patients who undergo a total or near-total thyroidectomy will need to be on life-long thyroid hormone replacement after surgery.
3. Completion thyroidectomy
A completion thyroidectomy involves removing the remaining thyroid tissue after a patient has had a previous partial thyroid resection (i.e. lobectomy). It may be done years later or it may be done soon after a lobectomy (as early as the next week). The reasons for completion thyroidectomy are the same as for a lobectomy or total thyroidectomy. All patients who undergo a completion thyroidectomy will need to be on life-long thyroid hormone replacement after surgery.
There are a different types of thyroid surgery. Lobectomy is done when a nodule, inflammation or swelling affects only half of the thyroid gland and only one of the lobes has to be removed. The thyroid gland is removed but some portion of thyroid tissues are left in subtotal thyroidectomy. Some functions of the thyroid are thus preserved. When nodules, inflammation or swelling affects the entire thyroid gland, total thyroidectomy is done to remove the thyroid gland and the thyroid tissues.
A surgeon makes a single incision or a number of incisions in the neck or elsewhere to remove part or the whole of the thyroid gland. In conventional thyroidectomy, a single incision is made in the center of the neck to access the thyroid gland directly. Small incisions are made in the neck and surgical instruments are inserted through them in case of endoscopic thyroidectomy. A camera is also inserted that guides the surgeon. Robotic thyroidectomy requires incisions to be made in the chest and armpit or high up in the neck. This approach prevents a person from having an incision in the center of his/her neck.
A person suffering from the side-effects of a malfunctioning thyroid gland is eligible for treatment. A person suffering from thyroid cancer is also eligible for this treatment. Thyroid surgery helps to correct hyperthyroidism due to an overactive thyroid gland and also to treat noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid or goiter. People suffering from such conditions are eligible for treatment.
A person who does not have a malfunctioning thyroid gland is not suitable for this treatment. Someone suffering from hypothyroidism is also not qualified to undergo this treatment. As it is a surgical procedure, prior consultation with the doctor is required. A physically unfit person should not undergo this surgery.
Thyroid surgery is generally a safe procedure. However some side-effects are associated with this surgery. The complications may include infection, bleeding and airways can get obstructed due to the bleeding. In rare cases, one of the parathyroid glands may get affected and the person will suffer from hypothyroidism. In some other cases, a person may suffer from permanent hoarse or weak voice due to damage to the nerves.