Dental cement also known as dental cement, tooth glue, or tooth crown glue, is an agent that a dentist uses for securing a tooth restoration, such as a fixed bridge, inlay, onlay, or crown, to your damaged teeth. Tooth cement can also be used to build up the tooth itself, for example to repair a small chip, and it's the same stuff that's used in some types of fillings.
In fact, Dental cements can be described as a group of materials with a wide range of dental & orthodontic applications. Some of its common uses include temporary restoration of teeth, cavity linings to provide pulpal protection, sedation or insulation and cementing fixed prosthodontic appliances (dental crowns, dental bridges, and some removable partial dentures) by a process improperly called cementing or cementation.
According to the expected longevity of the restoration, dental cements can be divided into 2 groups:
. Provisional (temporary)
. Definitive (permanent)
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Dental cement should fulfil specific biological, physical, mechanical and handling requirements to establish retention of the restorations to tooth preparation or implant abutment and maintain its integrity.
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The properties dental cement should have to qualify for use as ideal dental cement include:
. Good biocompatibility - it should be biocompatible with dental pulp and soft tissues around the teeth.
. Good physical properties – it should have proper film thickness to ensure optimum seating of a restoration, low viscosity, low solubility, extended working time and short setting time, and should be radiopaque.
. Mechanical properties – it should have high tensile/shear/compressive strength, high bonding strength
. Good handling properties – should be easy to mix and clean
. Resistant to dissolution – it should not dissolve in saliva, or in any oral fluid, which can be the primary cause of failure of cements.
Types of Dental Glue
Dental cement has been classified into three different types based on their application uses.
. Type I (a): Fine grains used for luting and cementation
. Type I (b): Medium grain used for orthodontic purposes
. Type II: Used for restorative purposes
. Type III: Used for liners or base applications
Dental glue for crowns and other restorations are classified differently based on their duration of use and composition.
There are two types of dental glue depending on the length of time for which they are used:
. Temporary dental glue
. Permanent dental glue
Temporary cement is a part of the temporary filling kit which is commonly used to fix crowns and other restorations for a short duration of time. A dentist uses this kind of dental crown glue in circumstances where they wish to observe and assess the response of your teeth to the restoration in use.
Temporary cements are usually made up of eugenol, olive oil, and zinc oxide powder.
Features of Temporary Dental Glue
Temporary dental glue features the following aspects:
. It provides a good grip on teeth as well as on the dental crowns
. It is easily tolerated by the surrounding tissue
. It is easy to remove
. It protects a damaged tooth and helps minimize its sensitivity
. Saliva helps it dissolve in a short period of time. Because of this, temporary glue must be replaced with permanent glue in 3 to 6 weeks following its application.
. It possesses a low resistance
. Permanent Dental Glue
Permanent dental glue is the type of teeth glue used for fixing various dental restorations on a permanent basis. In contrast to temporary dental glue, permanent glue is made up of hard and brittle materials obtained by mixing liquid and powder together.
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These are the features of a permanent dental glue:
. It creates a strong bond with the tooth and the restoration to provide long-term, permanent protection
. It is easily tolerated by the surrounding tissue, thereby preventing dead teeth and tissue.
. It provides good sealing at the margins to prevent leakage
. It protects the dental tissue from all sorts of external stimuli
. It provides exceptional resistance
. It does not dissolve in saliva or any other oral liquid; offers permanent protection
Depending on what it's made of, dental cement can be divided into six types:
. Glass ionomer cement
Glass ionomer cement is made from powdered glass mixed with an acid. It is used for the final cementation of bridges and crowns made from alloys, but it doesn't adhere to porcelain. Glass ionomer cement is often the material of choice for filling children's milk teeth, too.
. Bioceramic cement
Bioceramic dental cement is a permanent adhesive agent that appears opaque on x-rays. It's commonly used for endodontic (root canal) work because it is biocompatible, meaning it can either function as natural tissue or encourage the regeneration of tissue.
. Zinc oxide eugenol cement
Zinc oxide cement is an oil-based glue used to soothe the pulp of a broken tooth. It is usually avoided in cases where permanency is required. This cement is particularly helpful to temporarily cement a tooth with exposed dentine. Nowadays, many companies are adding different splinting agents to the zinc oxide cement to grant it permanent luting effects.
Zinc oxide eugenol is not considered to be a strong product for cementing most types of dental restorations, and its use is normally limited to gluing stainless steel crowns, acrylic crowns, and cast restorations.
. Zinc phosphate cement
Zinc phosphate cement was one of the first permanent cements to be used in dentistry, and it remains in wide use today for a variety of permanent restoration purposes. Although it doesn't chemically bond to the tooth surface, it has exhibited significant long-term success. However, it is gradually becoming less popular because its relatively high acidity can irritate tooth pulp.
. Adhesive resin cement
Adhesive resin cement is a permanent dental glue that bonds with most ceramic and alloy restorations, except implant-supported crowns, veneers, indirect resin restorations, and bridges.
. Aesthetic resin cement
Aesthetic resin cement contains translucent resins that are available in different shades, meaning it can be made to match the natural tooth color. It is normally used for bonding all-ceramic and indirect composite restorations, including repairing a chipped tooth. This type of glue has high resistance and utility and a unique composition that does not break apart or dissolve.
How do dentists choose dental glue?
Normally, dentists decide on the kind of dental cement they use depending on the following three factors:
Longevity is one of the main factors that the dentist will consider when choosing the best glue for you. For instance, they may use a temporary or a permanent glue depending on how long you need the crown.
Durability really matters when it comes to choosing the right kind of dental glue, and it basically depends on the type of restoration used. Permanent dental glue provides good durability and is used for keeping long-term crowns and bridges in place. In contrast, people who do not require a hard finish can try the eugenol-free glue.
Depending upon your aesthetic requirements, dentists may choose different sorts of dental glue. For example, most people get a temporary glue made with resin because its base is clear in color and it is aesthetically pleasing. At the same time, this type of glue is difficult to remove and may get discolored easily. So, all these factors must be kept in mind when deciding the right type of dental glue.
Techniques for applying glue
There are a number of steps that dentists usually follow in order to apply the glue. In this scenario, we will discuss its application in reference to broken crowns.
. The mouth is properly cleaned followed by cleaning and disinfection of the crowns. The dentist usually puts a rubber dam or cotton rolls in the mouth to get rid of any fluid.
. The glue is prepared according to the instructions until the desired consistency is achieved.
. The dental glue is then applied to the interior of the crown in such a way that it covers it completely.
. The dentist then places the crown on the abutment of the tooth in order to prevent any misplacement.
. After the restoration process is completed, all extra glue is cleared away.
After the process, the patient is advised to maintain good oral health and keep in touch with the dentist.
Dental Crown Glue: What kind of dental glue is used for your crowns?
Dental crowns are replacement of missing teeth and are made to fit over your teeth. Crowns are hooked up to abutments, fixed into an implant that is connected to your jaw bone, and held together in their place with the help of dental cements. Dental glue made up of powdered glass and synthetic resins are generally used for crowns.
Glass ionomer (GI), resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), Zinc phosphate and resin cements are few dental glues for crowns that create a semi-permanent seal.
Newer dental glue for crowns such as GI and RMGI cement are composed of polyacrylic acid liquid and fluoroaluminosilicate glass powder. Resin cements affect the consistency and strength of the cement due to presence of synthetic resins and dimethacrylates.