Cesarean section complications

Cesarean section complications

cesarean section complications

Caesarean delivery has immediate known benefits and risks for those women who need help in childbirth.

The risks associated with cesarean delivery can be divided into those that are short term, those that are longer term, and those that present risks to future pregnancies. There are also risks to the newborn that need to be considered.

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Short-term Risks of Cesarean Delivery

Maternal Death. The risk of maternal death during childbirth is greater with cesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery, although very low.

Thromboembolism. One of the leading causes of maternal mortality related to cesarean delivery is deep vein thrombosis resulting in pulmonary embolism.

Hemorrhage. Blood loss during a cesarean delivery may be greater than during a vaginal delivery.

Infection. Infection is one of the most common complications of cesarean delivery. In the absence of prophylactic antibiotics, the rates of postpartum endomyometritis can be as high as 35% to 40%.

Incidental Surgical Injuries. Bladder injuries are the most common injuries to surrounding structures occurring at the time of cesarean delivery.

Less common surgical injuries involve the bowel or ureters. Risk factors for any of these injuries are prior pelvic surgery (including prior cesarean deliveries), emergency cesarean delivery, and cesarean-hysterectomy. Early recognition and prompt management of these injuries are key to preventing the development of further complications, such as sepsis, renal failure, and fistula formation.

Extended Hospitalization. A woman who has had a cesarean delivery typically remains hospitalized longer than one who has had a vaginal delivery and has increased risk for readmission. Patients who delivered abdominally are usually discharged on the 3rd or 4th postpartum day compared with the 1st or 2nd postpartum day for those who deliver vaginally. The average length of hospitalization may even be longer given some of the complications (eg, postpartum infections) that are more common in women who deliver by cesarean section.

Emergency Hysterectomy. The risk of the need for hysterectomy after or during a cesarean delivery is greater than after a vaginal delivery.

Pain. Women who undergo cesarean delivery more commonly experience pain after delivery compared with those having vaginal deliveries.

Poor Birth Experience.  women who delivered healthy babies by cesarean section (both planned and unplanned) were more likely to report dissatisfaction with their birth experience compared with those who delivered vaginally.

Women who deliver by cesarean have less early contact with their newborns than those who deliver vaginally, and typically have to wait a significantly longer time before their first contact with their baby.

 Long-term Risks of Cesarean Delivery

Readmission to the Hospital.  the rate of postpartum readmission to the hospital was significantly greater for those who delivered by cesarean delivery than for those who delivered vaginally and this increased risk persisted even after controlling for obstetric and intrapartum complications

Pain. Women who undergo cesarean deliveries are more likely to report pain to be a problem in the first 2 months after delivery.

Adhesion Formation. Adhesion formation resulting from cesarean delivery is common and significantly contributes to the risk of complications at future deliveries (see below). Adhesions arising from cesarean deliveries can also on rare occasions contribute to other complications, such as small bowel obstruction.

These adhesions may also be contributing to the reported increased risk of ectopic pregnancy among women with prior cesarean deliveries.

Infertility/Subfertility. An observational study of nearly 4000 women reported that women who had undergone cesarean delivery were more likely to be unable to conceive a pregnancy for more than 1 year

Risks for the Newborn of Cesarean Delivery

Neonatal Death. Although cesarean deliveries are typically performed for the benefit of the fetus, there are also risks for the newborn. In fact, babies both born by planned as well as unplanned cesarean deliveries had a nearly 4-fold risk of dying before discharge compared with those delivered vaginally (8 deaths per 10,000 births for each planned or unplanned cesarean deliveries and 2 per 10,000 for those delivered vaginally).

Respiratory Difficulties. Most well described are the respiratory difficulties encountered in newborns delivered at term. These respiratory difficulties, known as transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN), probably result from a failure of the mechanisms to resorb fetal lung fluid that are typically triggered during vaginal birth

Asthma. Several studies have reported an association between cesarean delivery and the later development of asthma. One of these studies examined more than 40,000 children delivered by cesarean and found that those delivered either by planned or unplanned cesarean were approximately 30% more likely than those delivered vaginally to have been admitted to the hospital for asthma during childhood. This increased risk of asthma may persist into adulthood. In a study of more than 9700 Danish women, the authors found that those who were delivered by cesarean were also approximately 30% more likely to report that they ever had asthma.

 Iatrogenic Prematurity. Also encountered more commonly with planned cesarean deliveries than those performed after the onset of labor is iatrogenic prematurity. This occurs occasionally even for babies thought to be full term.

Trauma. Babies delivered by cesarean are also at risk of trauma, most commonly as the result of surgical cuts, particularly during emergency deliveries.

Failure to Breastfeed.  babies delivered by cesarean were less likely to be breastfed compared with those who were delivered vaginally, and this effect seemed to be stronger for those delivered by unplanned cesareans. mothers who underwent planned or unplanned cesarean deliveries were nearly twice as likely to have breastfeeding difficulties compared with those who delivered vaginally.

10 common questions about cesarean section complications

1Can you die from a cesarean section?
Cesarean Surgery The estimated risk of a woman dying after a cesarean birth is higher than the risk of death after a vaginal birth, but it is still considered a rare event. Individual medical conditions such as some heart problems may make the risk of vaginal birth greater than cesarean birth
2What percent of C sections have complications?
Women who had C-sections were 80 percent more likely to have complications than those who delivered vaginally, researchers report in the journal CMAJ. And women over age 35 who had C-sections were almost three times more likely to have severe complications
3How long does it take for a cesarean to heal internally?
Get plenty of rest A C-section is major surgery. Just like with any surgery, your body needs time to heal afterward. Expect to stay in the hospital for three to four days after your delivery (longer if there are complications), and give your body up to six weeks to fully heal.
4Are Cesarean babies more intelligent?
In the study of Seyed Noori et al, 35.2% of mothers believed that children born by cesarean delivery were more intelligent. The previous studies did not show such results. However, further cognitive outcomes in follow-up studies of infants delivered by cesarean section or vaginally are still ambiguous.
5Are 4 C sections dangerous?
C-sections today are, in general, safe for both mother and baby. However, there are risks with any kind of surgery. Potential C-section risks include: increased bleeding (that could, though rarely, require a blood transfusion)
6Is a third C section dangerous?
However, research hasn't established the exact number of repeat C-sections considered safe. Women who have multiple repeat cesarean deliveries are at increased risk of: Bladder and bowel injuries. The risk of a bladder injury increases to greater than 1 percent after a third cesarean delivery.
7Does cesarean affect baby?
Birth by cesarean poses several challenges for a baby. Compared to babies born vaginally, babies born by cesarean are at risk for health complications they are less likely to face with a normal birth. Especially if the mother did not labor, babies are more likely to have difficulty breathing on their own.
8How many C sections can a woman have?
Health risks increase with each subsequent cesarean, yet some women are able to have 6 or more c-sections without complication.
9Can I use Indian toilet after C section?
Some women can have little bit backache for few days after C-section. This is usually due to injection given in the lower back for spinal anaesthesia. This can be avoided by drinking lots of water and avoiding pillow for first few days post surgery
10How painful is C section recovery?
How long does it take to recover after a c-section? It may take about six weeks to recover from your caesarean section (c-section). ... Gentle exercise, such as walking, will help you recover from your c-section. But avoid anything more active until you have no pain and you feel ready

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