Balloon Valvuloplasty also known as valvulotomy or valvotomy is a procedure done to open or widen a narrow or stiff (stenotic) heart valve. This procedure uses a balloon catheter to stretch the opening of your narrowed valve to allow more blood to flow through. This procedure provides temporary relief of symptoms. The most common cause of narrowing in the aortic valve is aortic valve stenosis.
Problems that can cause aortic valve stenosis include:
Calcium buildup on the aortic valve. As you age, calcium can build up on the valve, making it hard and thick. This buildup happens over time, so symptoms usually don't appear until after age 65.
Congenital- heart defect born with
Rheumatic fever or endocarditis. These infections can damage the valve.
Your physician will explain the procedure to you and offer you the opportunity to ask any questions that you might have about the procedure.
You will be asked to sign a consent form that gives your permission to do the test. Read the form carefully and ask questions if something is not clear.
Notify your physician if you have ever had a reaction to any contrast dye, or if you are allergic to iodine or seafood.
Notify your physician if you are sensitive to or are allergic to any medications, latex, tape, or anesthetic agents (local and general).
You will need to fast for a certain period of time prior to the procedure. Your physician will notify you how long to fast, usually overnight.
If you are pregnant or suspect that you may be pregnant, you should notify your physician.
Notify your physician if you have any body piercings on your chest and/or abdomen.
Notify your physician of all medications (prescription and over-the-counter) and herbal supplements that you are taking.
Notify your physician if you have heart valve disease, as you may need to receive an antibiotic prior to the procedure.
Notify your physician if you have a history of bleeding disorders or if you are taking any anticoagulant (blood-thinning) medications, aspirin, or other medications that affect blood clotting. It may be necessary for you to stop some of these medications prior to the procedure.
Your physician may request a blood test prior to the procedure to determine how long it takes your blood to clot. Other blood tests may be done as well.
Notify your physician if you have a pacemaker.
You may receive a sedative prior to the procedure to help you relax.
The area around the catheter insertion (groin area) may be shaved.
Based upon your medical condition, your physician in Iran may request other specific preparation.
Minimise description of What happensThis procedure is performed under local anaesthetic and light sedation, meaning you'll be drowsy but pain-free while it's carried out. After your skin has been numbed your consultant will make a small cut in your groin and a thin tube (catheter) with a small balloon attached to it will be passed into your heart. The balloon is inflated inside the narrowed valve to make it wider. The balloon is then deflated and removed, along with the catheter. This minimally invasive procedure has a much shorter recovery time than full open surgery.
After the procedure, you may be taken to the recovery room for observation or returned to your hospital room. You will remain flat in bed for several hours after the procedure. A nurse will monitor your vital signs, the insertion site, and circulation/sensation in the affected leg or arm.
You should immediately inform your nurse if you feel any chest pain or tightness, or any other pain, as well as any feelings of warmth, bleeding, or pain at the insertion site in your leg or arm.
Bedrest may vary from two to six hours depending on your specific condition. If your physician placed a closure device, your bedrest may be of shorter duration.
In some cases, the sheath or introducer may be left in the insertion site. If so, the period of bedrest will be prolonged until the sheath is removed. After the sheath is removed, you may be given a light meal.
You may be given pain medication for pain or discomfort related to the insertion site or having to lie flat and still for a prolonged period.
You will be encouraged to drink water and other fluids to help flush the contrast dye from your body.
You may feel the urge to urinate frequently because of the effects of the contrast dye and increased fluids. You will need to use a bedpan or urinal while on bedrest so that your affected leg or arm will not be bent.
You may resume your usual diet after the procedure, unless your physician decides otherwise.
After the specified period of bed rest has been completed, you may get out of bed. The nurse will assist you the first time you get up, and will check your blood pressure while you are lying in bed, sitting, and standing. You should move slowly when getting up from the bed to avoid any dizziness from the long period of bedrest.
You will most likely spend the night in the hospital after your procedure. Depending on your condition and the results of your procedure, your stay may be longer. You will receive detailed instructions for your discharge and recovery period.
Once at home, you should monitor the insertion site for bleeding, unusual pain, swelling, and abnormal discoloration or temperature change at or near the injection site. A small bruise is normal. If you notice a constant or large amount of blood at the site that cannot be contained with a small dressing, notify your physician.
If your physician used a closure device for your insertion site, you will be given specific information regarding the type of closure device that was used and how to take care of the insertion site. There will be a small knot, or lump, under the skin at the injection site. This is normal. The knot should gradually disappear over a few weeks.
It will be important to keep the insertion site clean and dry. Your physician will give you specific bathing instructions.
You may be advised not to participate in any strenuous activities. Your physician will instruct you about when you can return to work and resume normal activities.
Notify your physician to report any of the following:
Fever and/or chills
Increased pain, redness, swelling, or bleeding or other drainage from the insertion site
Coolness, numbness and/or tingling, or other changes in the affected extremity
Chest pain/pressure, nausea and/or vomiting, profuse sweating, dizziness, and/or fainting
Your physician may give you additional or alternate instructions after the procedure, depending on your particular situation.
A valvuloplasty procedure includes risks. For children, teens, and young adults, problems include bleeding and heart rhythm changes. The chance of having a problem from the procedure varies based on how severe the disease is.
For older adults, serious complications happen in 1 or 2 out of 10 people who have this procedure. These problems include stroke, blood vessel problems that need surgery, and death.
Complications related to the catheter include:
Pain, swelling, and tenderness at the catheter insertion site.
Irritation of the vein by the catheter (superficial thrombophlebitis). This can usually be treated with warm compresses.
Bleeding at the catheter site.
A bruise where the catheter was inserted. This usually goes away in a few days.
Trouble urinating after the procedure.