polycystic ovary syndrome symptoms

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

What is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.

The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. Early diagnosis and treatment along with weight loss may reduce the risk of long-term complications such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

About Iranian Surgery

Iranian surgery is an online medical tourism platform where you can find the best doctors in Iran. The price of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Treatment in Iran can vary according to each individual’s case and will be determined based on an in-person assessment with the doctor and the type of treatment.

For more information about the cost of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Treatment in Iran and to schedule an appointment in advance, you can contact Iranian Surgery consultants via WhatsApp number +98 901 929 0946. This service is completely free.

Before Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Treatment

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of PCOS often develop around the time of the first menstrual period during puberty. Sometimes PCOS develops later, for example, in response to substantial weight gain.

Signs and symptoms of PCOS vary. A diagnosis of PCOS is made when you experience at least two of these signs:

. Irregular periods. Infrequent, irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles are the most common sign of PCOS. For example, you might have fewer than nine periods a year, more than 35 days between periods and abnormally heavy periods.

. Excess androgen. Elevated levels of male hormones may result in physical signs, such as excess facial and body hair (hirsutism), and occasionally severe acne and male-pattern baldness.

. Polycystic ovaries. Your ovaries might be enlarged and contain follicles that surround the eggs. As a result, the ovaries might fail to function regularly.

PCOS signs and symptoms are typically more severe if you're obese.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you have concerns about your menstrual periods, if you're experiencing infertility or if you have signs of excess androgen such as worsening hirsutism, acne and male-pattern baldness.

Causes

The exact cause of PCOS isn't known. Factors that might play a role include:

. Excess insulin. Insulin is the hormone produced in the pancreas that allows cells to use sugar, your body's primary energy supply. If your cells become resistant to the action of insulin, then your blood sugar levels can rise and your body might produce more insulin. Excess insulin might increase androgen production, causing difficulty with ovulation.

. Low-grade inflammation. This term is used to describe white blood cells' production of substances to fight infection. Research has shown that women with PCOS have a type of low-grade inflammation that stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens, which can lead to heart and blood vessel problems.

. Heredity. Research suggests that certain genes might be linked to PCOS.

. Excess androgen. The ovaries produce abnormally high levels of androgen, resulting in hirsutism and acne.

Complications

Complications of PCOS can include:

. Infertility

. Gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure

. Miscarriage or premature birth

. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis — a severe liver inflammation caused by fat accumulation in the liver

. Metabolic syndrome — a cluster of conditions including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that significantly increase your risk of cardiovascular disease

. Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes

. Sleep apnea

. Depression, anxiety and eating disorders

. Abnormal uterine bleeding

. Cancer of the uterine lining (endometrial cancer)

Obesity is associated with PCOS and can worsen complications of the disorder.

Diagnosis

There's no test to definitively diagnose PCOS. Your doctor is likely to start with a discussion of your medical history, including your menstrual periods and weight changes. A physical exam will include checking for signs of excess hair growth, insulin resistance and acne.

Your doctor might then recommend:

. A pelvic exam. The doctor visually and manually inspects your reproductive organs for masses, growths or other abnormalities.

. Blood tests. Your blood may be analyzed to measure hormone levels. This testing can exclude possible causes of menstrual abnormalities or androgen excess that mimics PCOS. You might have additional blood testing to measure glucose tolerance and fasting cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

. An ultrasound. Your doctor checks the appearance of your ovaries and the thickness of the lining of your uterus. A wandlike device (transducer) is placed in your vagina (transvaginal ultrasound). The transducer emits sound waves that are translated into images on a computer screen.

If you have a diagnosis of PCOS, your doctor might recommend additional tests for complications. Those tests can include:

. Periodic checks of blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels

. Screening for depression and anxiety

. Screening for obstructive sleep apnea

During Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Treatment

Treatment

PCOS treatment focuses on managing your individual concerns, such as infertility, hirsutism, acne or obesity. Specific treatment might involve lifestyle changes or medication.

Lifestyle changes

Your doctor may recommend weight loss through a low-calorie diet combined with moderate exercise activities. Even a modest reduction in your weight — for example, losing 5 percent of your body weight — might improve your condition. Losing weight may also increase the effectiveness of medications your doctor recommends for PCOS, and can help with infertility.

Medications

To regulate your menstrual cycle, your doctor might recommend:

. Combination birth control pills. Pills that contain estrogen and progestin decrease androgen production and regulate estrogen. Regulating your hormones can lower your risk of endometrial cancer and correct abnormal bleeding, excess hair growth and acne. Instead of pills, you might use a skin patch or vaginal ring that contains a combination of estrogen and progestin.

. Progestin therapy. Taking progestin for 10 to 14 days every one to two months can regulate your periods and protect against endometrial cancer. Progestin therapy doesn't improve androgen levels and won't prevent pregnancy. The progestin-only minipill or progestin-containing intrauterine device is a better choice if you also wish to avoid pregnancy.

To help you ovulate, your doctor might recommend:

. Clomiphene. This oral anti-estrogen medication is taken during the first part of your menstrual cycle.

. Letrozole (Femara). This breast cancer treatment can work to stimulate the ovaries.

. Metformin. This oral medication for type 2 diabetes improves insulin resistance and lowers insulin levels. If you don't become pregnant using clomiphene, your doctor might recommend adding metformin. If you have prediabetes, metformin can also slow the progression to type 2 diabetes and help with weight loss.

. Gonadotropins. These hormone medications are given by injection.

To reduce excessive hair growth, your doctor might recommend:

. Birth control pills. These pills decrease androgen production that can cause excessive hair growth.

. Spironolactone (Aldactone). This medication blocks the effects of androgen on the skin. Spironolactone can cause birth defects, so effective contraception is required while taking this medication. It isn't recommended if you're pregnant or planning to become pregnant.

. Eflornithine (Vaniqa). This cream can slow facial hair growth in women.

. Electrolysis. A tiny needle is inserted into each hair follicle. The needle emits a pulse of electric current to damage and eventually destroy the follicle. You might need multiple treatments.

After Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Treatment

Lifestyle and home remedies

To help decrease the effects of PCOS, try to:

. Maintain a healthy weight. Weight loss can reduce insulin and androgen levels and may restore ovulation. Ask your doctor about a weight-control program, and meet regularly with a dietitian for help in reaching weight-loss goals.

. Limit carbohydrates. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets might increase insulin levels. Ask your doctor about a low-carbohydrate diet if you have PCOS. Choose complex carbohydrates, which raise your blood sugar levels more slowly.

. Be active. Exercise helps lower blood sugar levels. If you have PCOS, increasing your daily activity and participating in a regular exercise program may treat or even prevent insulin resistance and help you keep your weight under control and avoid developing diabetes.

Source:

. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pcos/symptoms-causes/syc-20353439

10 common questions about polycystic ovary syndrome symptoms

1What is the main cause of polycystic ovary syndrome?
Doctors don't know exactly what causes PCOS. They believe that high levels of male hormones prevent the ovaries from producing hormones and making eggs normally. Genes, insulin resistance, and inflammation have all been linked to excess androgen production
2Is PCOS a serious problem?
The cysts are not harmful, but they can lead to an imbalance in hormone levels. Women with PCOS may also experience menstrual cycle abnormalities, increased androgen (sex hormone) levels, excess hair growth, acne, and obesity.
3Can you get rid of polycystic ovary syndrome?
There is no cure yet, but there are many ways you can decrease or eliminate PCOS symptoms and feel better. Your doctor may offer different medicines that can treat symptoms such as irregular periods, acne, excess hair, and elevated blood sugar. Fertility treatments are available to help women get pregnant
4Does PCOS cause pain?
Fact: Polycystic ovaries do not cause pain. Pain in the ovary could be from ovulation or from a cyst, which should usually clear up in time. ... Fact: Scalp hair loss may be due to an iron or zinc deficiency, and this possibility needs to be eliminated before PCOS is treated
5What should I not eat with PCOS?
People on a PCOS diet should avoid sugary beverages. In general, people on a PCOS diet should avoid foods already widely seen as unhealthful. These include: Refined carbohydrates, such as mass-produced pastries and white bread.
6Is PCOS a lifelong disease?
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a lifelong condition, but it can be treated in a number of ways. Treatment depends on the symptoms and whether or not a woman wants to become pregnant. Long-term treatment may be needed to help prevent endometrial cancer, diabetes, and heart disease.
7Is PCOS sexually transmitted?
A key sign of PCOS is irregular periods or missed periods. ... Still, many girls with PCOS can get pregnant if they have sex. So if you're sexually active, use condoms every time you have sex to avoid becoming pregnant or getting a sexually transmitted disease (STD)
8What is the difference between PCOD and PCOS?
This article will outline the major differences between the two. PCO is not a disease, whilst PCOS is a metabolic condition: PCO is a variant of normal ovaries, whilst PCOS is a metabolic disorder associated with an unbalanced hormone levels released by the woman's ovaries
9Is coffee bad for PCOS?
Coffee. ... There are good reasons why coffee does not mix well with a PCOS diagnosis: The caffeine in coffee increases your stress hormones which in turn increases your insulin levels. Becoming accustomed to coffee decreases your insulin sensitivity making it more difficult to regulate your blood sugar levels
10Why is it hard to lose weight with PCOS?
While women with PCOS lost less fat than those without this condition, the exercise regimen did result in loss of belly fat and improvements in insulin sensitivity. Weight training has also been shown to aid women with PCOS. In one study, 45 women with PCOS did weight training 3 times weekly.

[kkstarratings]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

Patient Review