Ovarian cancer Medscape

Ovarian cancer Medscape

ovarian cancer Medscape

Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of cancer death from gynecologic tumors in the United States. Malignant ovarian lesions include primary lesions arising from normal structures within the ovary and secondary lesions from cancers arising elsewhere in the body. Primary lesions include epithelial ovarian carcinoma (70% of all ovarian malignancies). Current research suggests that the majority of these originate from the fallopian tubes.  

Stromal tumors of the ovary include germ-cell tumors, sex-cord stromal tumors, and other more rare types. Metastases to the ovaries are relatively frequent; common sources are tumors in the endometrium, breast, colon, stomach, and cervix.

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The presence of advanced ovarian cancer is often suspected on clinical grounds but can be confirmed only pathologically by removal of the ovaries or, when disease is advanced, by sampling tissue or ascitic fluid.

Current guidelines from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology and the American Society of Clinical Oncology recommend that the primary clinical evaluation for ovarian cancer include a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis with oral and intravenous contrast, and chest imaging (CT preferred) to evaluate the extent of disease and the feasibility of surgical resection. National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend ultrasound and/or abdominal/pelvic CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as clinically indicated, and chest CT or x-ray, as clinically indicated.

10 common questions about Ovarian cancer Medscape

1What is epithelial ovarian cancer?
Cancer that forms in the tissue covering the ovary (one of a pair of female reproductive glands in which eggs are made). Most ovarian cancers are epithelial ovarian cancers. Fallopian tube cancer and primary peritoneal cancer are similar to epithelial ovarian cancer and are staged and treated the same way.
2What is stromal ovarian cancer?
Stromal Tumors - Ovarian stromal tumors are a rare class of tumors that develop from connective tissue cells that hold the ovary together and those that produce the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone.
3What is the etiology of ovarian cancer?
It's not clear what causes ovarian cancer, though doctors have identified factors that can increase the risk of the disease. In general, cancer begins when a cell develops errors (mutations) in its DNA. The mutations tell the cell to grow and multiply quickly, creating a mass (tumor) of abnormal cells
4Will ovarian cancer show on ultrasound?
The 2 tests used most often (in addition to a complete pelvic exam) to screen for ovarian cancer are transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and the CA-125 blood test. ... It can help find a mass (tumor) in the ovary, but it can't actually tell if a mass is cancer or benign.
5Where is the first place ovarian cancer spreads to?
Metastatic ovarian cancer is an advanced stage malignancy that has spread from the cells in the ovaries to distant areas of the body. This type of cancer is most likely to spread to the liver, the fluid around the lungs, the spleen, the intestines, the brain, skin or lymph nodes outside of the abdomen
6What causes epithelial ovarian cancer?
There are three hereditary patterns: ovarian cancer alone, ovarian and breast cancers, and ovarian and colon cancers. Fallopian tube cancer and peritoneal cancer may also be caused by certain inherited gene mutations
7Does ovarian cancer spread quickly?
Benign tumours don't usually spread to other parts of the body. They may need treatment but they're rarely life threatening. Malignant ovarian tumours, however, are cancerous. It's important to catch cancers early because they can grow enough to engulf most of the ovary and can spread to other parts of the body too.
8Who is most likely to get ovarian cancer?
Age. As with most cancers the risk of developing ovarian cancer increases as a woman gets older. Women over the age of 50 have a higher risk, and most cases of ovarian cancer occur in women who have already gone through the menopause. More than half the cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed are women over 65 years.
9Does size of ovarian tumor matter?
When it comes to ovarian cancer, size doesn't necessarily matter: Smaller tumors are just as likely to be malignant. Unfortunately, symptoms of ovarian cancer are vague, causing women to delay seeking care. Here's how ovarian tumors of varying sizes have impacted the lives of three women
10Do you get ovarian cancer in both ovaries?
Ovarian cancer, or cancer of the ovaries, is 1 of the most common types of cancer in women. The ovaries are a pair of small organs located low in the tummy that are connected to the womb and store a woman's supply of eggs.


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