What is Internal Limb Lengthening?
Internal limb lengthening is when the device used to lengthen the bone is inserted inside the bone. The lengthening device has a small magnetic motor inside it. When the motor is activated by an External Remote Controller (ERC), the device slowly lengthens, and this causes the bone to slowly lengthen.
What is the Precice and how does it work?
The Precice Lengthening System consists of a telescoping metal rod, called a lengthening nail, with a magnetic motor inside of it. The nail is inserted through a small incision into the bone canal where the bone marrow is found.
The patient is given a special device called an External Remote Controller (ERC) that is used to make the Precice nail slowly lengthen. The ERC has a magnet inside it that rotates. When the ERC is placed against the leg or arm and turned on, the movement of the magnet inside the ERC causes the magnetic motor inside the Precice to slowly lengthen. When the Precice lengthens, the bone also lengthens.
Read more about : Leg Lengthening Surgery (LON Method)
Before Internal Limb Lengthening (Precice Nail)
What should be done to prepare for surgery?
During the visit with the doctor, ask for our guide to prepare for surgery. When planning for Precice surgery, you should also be aware of the following:
. Schedule any necessary MRI scans before surgery: The patient may not be allowed to have an MRI scan after the Precice is inserted. An MRI scan could de-magnetize the Precice nail, making it unable to lengthen.
. Learn about the precautions that should be taken with the ERC: If any family members have a cardiac pacemaker, the ERC will need to be kept away from them. The magnet in the ERC could affect the functioning of some pacemakers. The magnet in the ERC can also adversely affect items such as credit cards, magnetic room keys and cell phones.
. Prepare for the ERC to be loud: When the ERC is being used to lengthen, it is loud! Parents may want their children to become familiar with the sound before the surgery.
. Joint contractures due to lengthening (hip, knee and ankle)
. Deformity of bone
. Delayed union, non-union or malunion of bony regenerate
. Infection of bone (osteomyelitis)
. Nerve injury due to traction from lengthening (Neuropraxia)
. Neurovascular injury or Compartment syndrome (very rare)
. Fat embolism syndrome or pulmonary embolism (very rare)
Will the Precice be a good option for every person who needs limb lengthening?
The Precice nail is offered in several lengths and diameters, but a person’s bone may still be too small for it. The diameter of the bone must be wide enough so that the Precice can fit inside the bone canal. The doctor will measure the diameter of the bone on an X-ray. The Precice is offered in three diameters: 8.5, 10.7 and 12.5 mm (0.33, 0.42, 0.50 inches).
The bone also needs to be long enough to fit the Precice. The shortest nail is 6.3 inches (160 mm) for the tibia and 6.7 inches (170 mm) for the femur. The doctor will measure the length of the bone on an X-ray to see if it is long enough to accommodate the Precice nail.
Young children and people with very small stature whose bones cannot accommodate the Precice nail can now reap the benefits of internal lengthening with the new (2020) Precice Plate.
Another factor that must be considered is whether the ERC can be placed close enough to the Precice to make it lengthen. Soft-tissues (muscle, fat, skin) can be so thick that the ERC cannot be placed close enough to the Precice to activate lengthening. To see if the Precice will work for a patient, the doctor will measure the distance from the bone canal to the skin on an X-ray.
People are not good candidates for the Precice if they have a pacemaker or know that they will need an MRI scan in the next year. It is generally not recommended to have an MRI scan when a person has a Precice nail implanted. Therefore, we routinely recommend removal of the Precice about one year after surgery, provided that the lengthened bone is fully healed.
Read more about : Leg lengthening surgery scars
Read more about : Success rate of limb lengthening surgery
Can the Precice internal nail be used in children?
A Precice nail may be inserted in a child’s thigh bone (femur) starting at about age eight years. For the shin bone (tibia), it is preferable to wait until close to skeletal maturity (age 14 years in girls and age 16 years in boys). Children as young as three or four years old can now be lengthened internally with the new (2020) Precice Plate.
How much will the Precice lengthen a bone?
The bone is lengthened in very small amounts each day until the lengthening goal is achieved. The maximum amount that can be lengthened depends on which model of the Precice is used. Different Precice models can lengthen the bone a total of 1.2 inches (30 mm), 2 inches (50 mm) or 3 inches (80 mm). For example, if the shortest Precice is the only one that fits in the bone, the patient may be limited to lengthening a total of 1.2 inches. In most cases, we can implant the models that allow 2 to 3 inches of length.
Will Precice lengthening hurt?
Precice lengthening with the ERC is so gradual that nearly all of our patients have told us that their leg does not hurt during the lengthening sessions.
What is the Precice Stryde Lengthening System?
The Precice Stryde nail operates like the Precice nail. The main difference is that the Precice Stryde nail is made of steel alloy instead of titanium. As a result, the Precice Stryde nail allows for more weight bearing, even in the early stages of treatment. This enables patients to return to daily activities sooner.
During Internal Limb Lengthening (Precice Nail)
How is the Precice inserted during surgery?
The doctor needs to make space for the device to fit inside the bone. The outer part of a bone is made up of hard tissue, but the inside of a bone is made up softer marrow tissue. The doctor will use an orthopedic drill to create a canal in the marrow cavity in the center of the bone. This canal will be large enough for the Precice to fit inside it.
The way the Precice is inserted depends on the bone and the patient’s unique situation:
. For the femur (thigh bone), the device may be inserted in two different ways:
. One way that the Precice can be inserted is through the top of the femur that is closest to the hip. This insertion from the hip towards the knee is called antegrade insertion.
. Another way that the Precice can be inserted is through the bottom of the femur that is closest to the knee. This insertion from the knee towards the hip is called retrograde insertion. Note that the location of the magnet in the femur when the Precice is inserted retrograde is different than when the Precice is inserted antegrade. The location of the magnet will affect where the patient places the ERC on the thigh. When the ERC is turned on and placed against the skin of the thigh, it causes the Precice to slowly lengthen.
. For the tibia (shin bone), the device will almost always be inserted from the top of the tibia that is closest to the knee.
. For the humerus (upper arm bone), the device will be inserted through the top of the humerus that is closest to the shoulder (from the shoulder towards the elbow).
After Internal Limb Lengthening (Precice Nail)
What happens after Precice insertion surgery?
After the Precice is inserted, the patient will stay in the hospital for 2 to 3 days. While using the ERC to lengthen the Precice (called the distraction phase), the patient will need to return for postoperative visits approximately every 10 to 14 days. After the distraction phase of treatment is completed, the consolidation phase starts where the bone solidifies and heals. The patient will need to return for postoperative visits every month until the bone is healed.
Physical or occupational therapy is critical during the distraction and consolidation phases of treatment. During therapy, the muscles, tendons and ligaments are stretched in order to ensure that the arm or leg will have full movement after treatment. Patients will need physical therapy if they are lengthening the bones in the legs or occupational therapy if they are lengthening the humerus (upper arm bone).
In many cases, we also prescribe special braces/splints. These are generally made for the patient during the week after surgery.
The patient will be allowed only limited weight bearing on the leg with the Precice in it. The doctor will determine how much weight bearing is allowed on the leg based on each unique situation and the size and type of the Precice nail that is implanted. If both legs will be lengthened, the patient will need to be in a wheelchair.
How is the ERC used to lengthen the bone?
When the ERC is turned on and placed against the skin of the leg or arm, it causes the Precice to slowly lengthen. When the Precice lengthens, the bone also lengthens. The ERC will stop when the patient has completed the correct amount of lengthening for that session.
When the arm or leg is swollen or has thick soft tissues, the doctor may instruct the patient to place the ERC against the skin and apply pressure to compress the soft tissues so that the ERC is closer to the Precice. Magnets work better when they are closer.
How often will the patient need to use the ERC?
The surgeon will prescribe how many separate lengthening sessions need to be done each day and the amount of lengthening for each session. Typically, patients are asked to lengthen the bone 0.75 to 1 mm each day (0.03 to 0.04 inches; there are 25 mm in 1 inch).
For example, a patient could be asked to lengthen 0.25 mm during four different sessions throughout the day, which would result in a total of 1 mm of lengthening each day. Each session with the ERC would takes about 2 minutes to lengthen the bone 0.25 mm. Four sessions would take a total of 8 minutes per day.
When can the Precice be removed?
Typically, the Precice is removed approximately 1 year after insertion. The removal procedure is an outpatient surgery, which means that the patient does not need to stay in the hospital overnight after the removal. The lengthened bone should be fully and circumferentially healed before considering removal of the Precice.