Glaucoma Diagnosis and treatment

glaucoma treatment

Glaucoma Diagnosis and treatment

Your doctor will review your medical history and conduct a comprehensive eye examination. He or she may perform several tests, including:

  • Measuring intraocular pressure (tonometry)
  • Testing for optic nerve damage with a dilated eye examination and imaging tests
  • Checking for areas of vision loss (visual field test)
  • Measuring corneal thickness (pachymetry)
  • Inspecting the drainage angle (gonioscopy)

Treatment

The damage caused by glaucoma can't be reversed. But treatment and regular checkups can help slow or prevent vision loss, especially if you catch the disease in its early stages.Glaucoma is treated by lowering your eye pressure (intraocular pressure). Depending on your situation, your options may include prescription eyedrops, oral medications, laser treatment, surgery or a combination of any of these.Depending on the type, severity and responsiveness of your glaucoma to treatment, your eye doctor may prescribe medical treatment, surgery or a combination of both.

Glaucoma medications

The use of topical medication (prescription eye drops) is the most common treatment for early glaucoma. The purpose of glaucoma eye drops is to reduce IOP to prevent vision loss.

The same medications used to treat glaucoma also are used to treat high eye pressure to prevent the onset of glaucoma.

Eyedrops

Glaucoma treatment often starts with prescription eyedrops. These can help decrease eye pressure by improving how fluid drains from your eye or by decreasing the amount of fluid your eye makes. For your own safety and well-being, it's important for you to take your daily glaucoma medication(s) as directed. Being careless and failing to comply with glaucoma treatment regimens eye doctors prescribe is one of the main causes of blindness from glaucoma.

iranian surgeryPrescription eyedrop medications include:

  • These increase the outflow of the fluid in your eye (aqueous humor), thereby reducing your eye pressure. Medicines in this category include latanoprost (Xalatan), travoprost (Travatan Z), tafluprost (Zioptan), bimatoprost (Lumigan) and latanoprostene bunod (Vyzulta).

Possible side effects include mild reddening and stinging of the eyes, darkening of the iris, darkening of the pigment of the eyelashes or eyelid skin, and blurred vision. This class of drug is prescribed for once-a-day use.

  • Beta blockers.These reduce the production of fluid in your eye, thereby lowering the pressure in your eye (intraocular pressure). Examples include timolol (Betimol, Istalol, Timoptic) and betaxolol (Betoptic).

Possible side effects include difficulty breathing, slowed heart rate, lower blood pressure, impotence and fatigue. This class of drug can be prescribed for once- or twice-daily use depending on your condition.

  • Alpha-adrenergic agonists.These reduce the production of aqueous humor and increase outflow of the fluid in your eye. Examples include apraclonidine (Iopidine) and brimonidine (Alphagan P, Qoliana).

Possible side effects include an irregular heart rate, high blood pressure, fatigue, red, itchy or swollen eyes, and dry mouth. This class of drug is usually prescribed for twice-daily use but sometimes can be prescribed for use three times a day.

  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.These medicines reduce the production of fluid in your eye. Examples include dorzolamide (Trusopt) and brinzolamide (Azopt). Possible side effects include a metallic taste, frequent urination, and tingling in the fingers and toes. This class of drug is usually prescribed for twice-daily use but sometimes can be prescribed for use three times a day.
  • Rho kinase inhibitor.This medicine lowers eye pressure by suppressing the rho kinase enzymes responsible for fluid increase. It is available as netarsudil (Rhopressa) and is prescribed for once-a-day use. Possible side effects include eye redness, eye discomfort and deposits forming on the cornea.
  • Miotic or cholinergic agents.These increase the outflow of fluid from your eye. An example is pilocarpine (Isopto Carpine). Side effects include headache, eye ache, smaller pupils, possible blurred or dim vision, and nearsightedness. This class of medicine is usually prescribed to be used up to four times a day. Because of potential side effects and the need for frequent daily use, these medications are not prescribed very often anymore.

There are two main types of laser surgery to treat glaucoma. They help aqueous drain from the eye. These procedures are usually done in the ophthalmologist’s office or an outpatient surgery center.

  • Trabeculoplasty. This surgery is for people who have open-angle glaucoma. The eye surgeon uses a laser to make the drainage angle work better. That way fluid flows out properly and eye pressure is reduced.
  • Iridotomy. This is for people who have angle-closure glaucoma. The ophthalmologist uses a laser to create a tiny hole in the iris. This hole helps fluid flow to the drainage angle.

10 common question about glaucoma treatment

1What is the best treatment for glaucoma?
Glaucoma can be treated with eye drops, pills, laser surgery, traditional surgery or a combination of these methods. The goal of any treatment is to prevent loss of vision, as vision loss from glaucoma is irreversible.
2Can glaucoma be cured?
In general, glaucoma cannot be cured, but it can be controlled. Eye drops, pills, laser procedures, and surgical operations are used to prevent or slow further damage from occurring. With any type of glaucoma, regular eye examinations are very important to detect progression and to prevent vision loss.
3What is the first sign of glaucoma?
If the entire optic nerve is destroyed, blindness results. Other symptoms usually are related to sudden increases in IOP, particularly with acute angle-closure glaucoma, and may include blurred vision, halos around lights, severe eye pain, headache, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
4Is glaucoma reversible?
Vision loss from glaucoma is not reversible with treatment, even with surgery. Because open-angle glaucoma has few warning signs or symptoms before damage has occurred, it is important to see a doctor for regular eye examinations.
5What can you do at home to lower eye pressure?
These tips may help you control high eye pressure or promote eye health. Eat a healthy diet. Eating a healthy diet can help you maintain your health, but it won't prevent glaucoma from worsening. ... Exercise safely. ... Limit your caffeine. ... Sip fluids frequently. ... Sleep with your head elevated. ... Take prescribed medicine.
6What foods to avoid if you have glaucoma?
You should avoid foods like baked goods such as cookies, cakes, donuts or fried items like French fries or stick margarine to steer clear from worsening your glaucoma. It may also improve your eye health.
7Can you stop glaucoma from getting worse?
While researchers are actively seeking new therapies to treat glaucoma, the only proven treatment to prevent glaucoma from developing or getting worse is to lower the pressure in the eye. Eye pressure is a proven cause of glaucoma and currently the only known modifiable risk factor for progression
8Is Glaucoma Surgery dangerous?
In the short term after your operation, glaucoma surgery temporarily disrupts your vision. It is important to understand that permanent vision can be reduced, or even, in very rare instances, totally lost as a result of any of these glaucoma operations; however, vision loss is not a common permanent side effect.
9Which is worse glaucoma or cataracts?
Cataracts are unlikely to be the cause of blindness, not so with Glaucoma; it can cause irreversible blindness and must be treated. Glaucoma and cataracts are more prevalent in people who suffer from diabetes. Although glaucoma may be worse in one eye than the other, usually both eyes are affected
10What are the 3 types of glaucoma?
Types of glaucoma. There are four main types of glaucoma: primary open angle glaucoma, primary angle closure glaucoma, secondary glaucoma and developmental glaucoma.

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Glaucoma Diagnosis and treatment

Your doctor will review your medical history and conduct a comprehensive eye examination. He or she may perform several tests, including:

  • Measuring intraocular pressure (tonometry)
  • Testing for optic nerve damage with a dilated eye examination and imaging tests
  • Checking for areas of vision loss (visual field test)
  • Measuring corneal thickness (pachymetry)
  • Inspecting the drainage angle (gonioscopy)

Treatment

The damage caused by glaucoma can’t be reversed. But treatment and regular checkups can help slow or prevent vision loss, especially if you catch the disease in its early stages.Glaucoma is treated by lowering your eye pressure (intraocular pressure). Depending on your situation, your options may include prescription eyedrops, oral medications, laser treatment, surgery or a combination of any of these.Depending on the type, severity and responsiveness of your glaucoma to treatment, your eye doctor may prescribe medical treatment, surgery or a combination of both.

Glaucoma medications

The use of topical medication (prescription eye drops) is the most common treatment for early glaucoma. The purpose of glaucoma eye drops is to reduce IOP to prevent vision loss.

The same medications used to treat glaucoma also are used to treat high eye pressure to prevent the onset of glaucoma.

Eyedrops

Glaucoma treatment often starts with prescription eyedrops. These can help decrease eye pressure by improving how fluid drains from your eye or by decreasing the amount of fluid your eye makes. For your own safety and well-being, it’s important for you to take your daily glaucoma medication(s) as directed. Being careless and failing to comply with glaucoma treatment regimens eye doctors prescribe is one of the main causes of blindness from glaucoma.

iranian surgeryPrescription eyedrop medications include:

  • These increase the outflow of the fluid in your eye (aqueous humor), thereby reducing your eye pressure. Medicines in this category include latanoprost (Xalatan), travoprost (Travatan Z), tafluprost (Zioptan), bimatoprost (Lumigan) and latanoprostene bunod (Vyzulta).

Possible side effects include mild reddening and stinging of the eyes, darkening of the iris, darkening of the pigment of the eyelashes or eyelid skin, and blurred vision. This class of drug is prescribed for once-a-day use.

  • Beta blockers.These reduce the production of fluid in your eye, thereby lowering the pressure in your eye (intraocular pressure). Examples include timolol (Betimol, Istalol, Timoptic) and betaxolol (Betoptic).

Possible side effects include difficulty breathing, slowed heart rate, lower blood pressure, impotence and fatigue. This class of drug can be prescribed for once- or twice-daily use depending on your condition.

  • Alpha-adrenergic agonists.These reduce the production of aqueous humor and increase outflow of the fluid in your eye. Examples include apraclonidine (Iopidine) and brimonidine (Alphagan P, Qoliana).

Possible side effects include an irregular heart rate, high blood pressure, fatigue, red, itchy or swollen eyes, and dry mouth. This class of drug is usually prescribed for twice-daily use but sometimes can be prescribed for use three times a day.

  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.These medicines reduce the production of fluid in your eye. Examples include dorzolamide (Trusopt) and brinzolamide (Azopt). Possible side effects include a metallic taste, frequent urination, and tingling in the fingers and toes. This class of drug is usually prescribed for twice-daily use but sometimes can be prescribed for use three times a day.
  • Rho kinase inhibitor.This medicine lowers eye pressure by suppressing the rho kinase enzymes responsible for fluid increase. It is available as netarsudil (Rhopressa) and is prescribed for once-a-day use. Possible side effects include eye redness, eye discomfort and deposits forming on the cornea.
  • Miotic or cholinergic agents.These increase the outflow of fluid from your eye. An example is pilocarpine (Isopto Carpine). Side effects include headache, eye ache, smaller pupils, possible blurred or dim vision, and nearsightedness. This class of medicine is usually prescribed to be used up to four times a day. Because of potential side effects and the need for frequent daily use, these medications are not prescribed very often anymore.

There are two main types of laser surgery to treat glaucoma. They help aqueous drain from the eye. These procedures are usually done in the ophthalmologist’s office or an outpatient surgery center.

  • Trabeculoplasty. This surgery is for people who have open-angle glaucoma. The eye surgeon uses a laser to make the drainage angle work better. That way fluid flows out properly and eye pressure is reduced.
  • Iridotomy. This is for people who have angle-closure glaucoma. The ophthalmologist uses a laser to create a tiny hole in the iris. This hole helps fluid flow to the drainage angle.

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