Endoscopy in Iran

Endoscopy in Iran

Endoscopy in Iran

overview

Endoscopy is a nonsurgical procedure used to examine a person's digestive tract. Using an endoscope, a flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it, your doctor can view pictures of your digestive tract on a color TV monitor.

During an upper endoscopy, an endoscope is easily passed through the mouth and throat and into the esophagus, allowing the doctor to view the esophagus, stomach, and upper part of the small intestine.

Similarly, endoscopes can be passed into the large intestine (colon) through the rectum to examine this area of the intestine. This procedure is called sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy depending on how far up the colon is examined.

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A special form of endoscopy called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography, or ERCP, allows pictures of the pancreas, gallbladder, and related structures to be taken. ERCP is also used for stent placement and biopsies.

Endoscopic ultrasound or EUS combines upper endoscopy and ultrasound examination to obtain images and information about various parts of the digestive tract.

Why it's done

Gastrointestinal tract

An upper endoscopy is used to diagnose and, sometimes, treat conditions that affect the upper part of your digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach and beginning of the small intestine (duodenum).

Your doctor may recommend an endoscopy procedure to:

  • Investigate signs and symptoms.An endoscopy may help your doctor determine what's causing digestive signs and symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, difficulty swallowing and gastrointestinal bleeding.
  • Diagnose.Your doctor may use an endoscopy to collect tissue samples (biopsy) to test for diseases and conditions, such as anemia, bleeding, inflammation, diarrhea or cancers of the digestive system.
  • Your doctor can pass special tools through the endoscope to treat problems in your digestive system, such as widening a narrow esophagus, clipping off a polyp or removing a foreign object.

How do I prepare for an endoscopy?

Your doctor will give you complete instructions on how to prepare. Most types of endoscopy require you to stop eating solid foods for up to 12 hours before the procedure. Some types of clear liquids, such as water or juice, might be allowed for up to two hours before the procedure. Your doctor will clarify this with you.

Your doctor may give you laxatives or enemas to use the night before the procedure to clear your system. This is common in procedures involving the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the anus.

Prior to the endoscopy, your doctor will do a physical examination and go over your complete medical history, including any prior surgeries.

Be sure to tell your doctor about any medications you’re taking, including over-the-counter drugs and nutritional supplements. Also alert your doctor about any allergies you might have. You may need to stop taking certain medications if they might affect bleeding, especially anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs.

Types of Endoscopy

Endoscopy is a procedure that allows a doctor to view the inside of a person's body. Doctors use it to diagnose diseases in the following parts of the body:

  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Colon
  • Ears
  • Nose
  • Throat
  • Heart
  • Urinary tract
  • Joints

During the procedure

For most endoscopic procedures, you will not need to stay in the hospital overnight.

You may receive a type of anesthesia, depending on the type of endoscopy. Anesthesia blocks the awareness of pain. You may be awake, drowsy, or asleep during the procedure depending on the type of anesthesia you have. While you receive anesthesia, your health care team will provide "anesthesia care," which includes monitoring your temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate.

During the procedure, your doctor will review and, possibly, record images from the endoscope. He or she will also perform any procedures. This could include the collecting tissue for testing.

After the procedure

After the endoscopy, you will rest in a recovery area. You may have mild side effects. Side effects depend on the type of endoscopy and may include a sore, dry throat, or bloating and gas.

Depending on the type of anesthesia you receive, you may need to have someone drive you home.

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What should I expect after returning home? 

Problems from an endoscopy are uncommon, but they can happen. These include a hole or tear in the examination area, bleeding, or infection.

Talk with your doctor immediately if you have any of these symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Vomiting
  • Chest pain
  • Abnormal stool
  • Shortness of breath
  • Severe abdominal pain or other unusual symptoms

Risks

An endoscopy is usually a safe procedure, and the risk of serious complications is very low.

Possible complications include:

an infection in a part of the body the endoscope is used to examine – this may require treatment with antibiotics

piercing or tearing (perforation) of an organ, or excessive bleeding – you may need surgery to repair tissue or organ damage; sometimes a blood transfusion may also be needed

Sedation

Sedation is usually safe, but it can occasionally cause complications, including:

feeling or being sick

a burning sensation at the site of the injection

saliva or, rarely, small particles of food falling into the lungs, triggering an infection (aspiration pneumonia)

irregular heartbeat or low blood pressure

breathing difficulties

Recovery

Recovery will depend on the type of procedure. For an upper endoscopy, which is used to enable a doctor to examine the upper gastrointestinal tract, the patient will be observed for some time after the procedure, usually around one hour, while any sedative medication wears off.

The person should not usually work or drive for the rest of the day, because of the sedative effect of the medication used to prevent the pain.

There may be some soreness. With this type of endoscopy, there may be bloating and a sore throat, but these usually resolve quickly.

10 common questions about Endoscopy in Iran

1Is it painful to do an endoscopy?
An endoscopy isn't usually painful, and most people only experience some mild discomfort, similar to indigestion or a sore throat. The procedure is usually carried out while you're conscious. You may be given a local anaesthetic to numb a specific area of your body. ... throat.
2What is the procedure for an endoscopy?
Endoscopy. An endoscopy procedure involves inserting a long, flexible tube (endoscope) down your throat and into your esophagus. A tiny camera on the end of the endoscope lets your doctor examine your esophagus, stomach and the beginning of your small intestine (duodenum)
3How long does an endoscopy take?
approximately 10 to 15 minutes An upper endoscopy takes approximately 10 to 15 minutes. A colonoscopy takes approximately 15 to 30 minutes. How long will I be there after the procedure? Patients remain in the recovery area 30 to 40 minutes after their procedure.
4Do they put you to sleep for an endoscopy?
Being sedated during the procedure will put you into a moderate to deep sleep, so you will not feel any discomfort when the endoscope is inserted through the mouth and into the stomach. Moreover, most people undergoing sedation will have some short-term memory loss, so you will not recall the examination itself
5Do you gag during an endoscopy?
It is normal to gag, but the reflex usually settles once the tube is passed. It is also common for the first attempt at swallowing not to succeed. With the encouragement of the endoscopy nurse and perhaps some maneuvers by the endoscopist, the tube will pass. ... The nurse will coach you on how to breathe
6Can you drink water before an endoscopy?
You shouldn't eat or drink anything after midnight the night before the procedure. ... However, you can usually have clear liquids after midnight up to six hours before the endoscopy if your procedure is in the afternoon. Clear liquids include: water
7What can I eat after endoscopy?
Over the next 24-48 hours, eat small meals consisting of soft, easily-digestible foods like soups, eggs, juices, pudding, applesauce, etc. You should also avoid consuming alcohol for at least 24 hours after your procedure. When you feel like you're “back to normal,” you may resume your normal diet.
8Do I really need an endoscopy?
Heartburn and endoscopy If you are middle-aged and older and have chronic heartburn, it's probably gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). ... Endoscopy is also in order if you have GERD symptoms along with certain "alarm" signs, such as difficulty swallowing, significant weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding, or anemia.
9Are biopsies always taken during endoscopy?
Remember, biopsies are taken for many reasons, and your doctor may take a biopsy even if he or she does not suspect cancer. ... Upper endoscopy enables the doctor to view the lining of the upper gastrointestinal tract including the esophagus, shown here in two views
10How long does it take to get results from an endoscopy biopsy?
Times vary, depending on the laboratory and the extent of testing needed. For a typical biopsy, results are often returned within 2–3 days. If the sample needs more extensive testing, results could take 7–10 days. Ask the doctor for an estimate of how long results will take.

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