This minimally-invasive shoulder surgery is used to remove tissue in the shoulder joint that has been damaged from arthritis, overuse or injury. The shoulder surgeon uses a small camera, called an arthroscope, which is inserted into the shoulder joint.
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Before Arthroscopic Debridement Shoulder Surgery
The decisions you make and the actions you take before surgery can be every bit as important as the procedure itself in ensuring a healthy recovery.
. Make sure you have received any equipment you will need when you get home from the hospital. This may include a shoulder sling, ice packs or coolers, or heating pads. You should receive prescriptions for any of these from your doctor when your surgery is scheduled.
. Learn the potential risks and benefits of the surgery by asking your surgeon any questions that will help you better understand the procedure. It can also help to talk to someone else who has undergone the same surgery.
. Any physical problems, such as a fever or infection, should be reported to your surgeon, and you should notify your surgeon of any medication you are taking.
. If the surgery is not being done arthroscopically, discontinue use of any anti-inflammatory medicine, especially aspirin, a week prior to surgery, to prevent excessive bleeding during the surgical procedure.
. Getting a second opinion from a physician who is as qualified as the surgeon who made the initial diagnosis is advisable in any case.
At most medical centers, you will go to "patient admissions" to check in for your arthroscopic debridement. If your surgery is going to be inpatient, there may be a separate department, so be sure to ask your doctor. After you have checked in to the hospital or clinic, you will go to a holding area where the final preparations are made. The paperwork is completed and your shoulder may be shaved, though this is not always necessary.
You will wear a hospital gown and remove all of your jewelry. You will meet the anesthesiologist or anesthetist (a nurse who has done graduate training to provide anesthesia under the supervision of an anesthesiologist). Then, you will walk or ride on a stretcher to the operating room. Most patients are not sedated until they go into the operating room. Here are some important things to remember for the day of your surgery:
. You will probably be told not to eat or drink anything after midnight on the night before your surgery. This will reduce the risk of vomiting while you are under anesthesia.
. Because the anesthetic and pain medications may make you drowsy and you will be unable to drive, arrange for someone to help take you out of the hospital and drive you home when you are released.
. Wear a soft, comfortable shirt that will not irritate your skin when worn under a shoulder sling.
. Take it easy. Keeping a good frame of mind can help ease any nerves or anxiety about undergoing surgery. Distractions such as reading, watching television, chatting with visitors, or talking on the telephone can also help.
Arthroscopic Debridement Shoulder Surgery Procedure
Arthroscopic debridement of a rotator cuff tear typically takes one to two hours to perform.
. You will either be put under general anesthesia or have your arm numbed with a regional anesthesia that is injected into your shoulder. The more tendons you have damaged, the longer the surgery will take to perform and the longer you will have to be under anesthetic.
. An arthroscope (a tiny camera about 3 1/2 millimeters in diameter) is inserted into your shoulder, and provides images on television monitors so the surgeon can see your shoulder ligaments.
. Microsurgery instruments are inserted through two or three incisions about three to four millimeters wide.
. Partial thickness tears usually have frayed or rough fragments removed (debrided). Surgeons then stimulate bleeding in the injured area to promote healing.
. Hooked edges on the top of the shoulder blade (acromion) may be pinching the rotator cuff. This may require the flattening of these bones, a procedure called subacromial decompression.
. After surgery you will receive stitches and be taken to the recovery room. The stitches are usually removed in two to three weeks.
After Arthroscopic Debridement Shoulder Surgery
When you awaken in the recovery room following arthroscopic debridement, your shoulder usually is wrapped in gauze, immobilized in a sling, and covered with an ice pack. You may feel a moderate amount of pain, depending on the severity of the rotator cuff tear. You usually stay in the recovery room for at least two hours while the anesthetic wears off. General anesthesia wears off in about an hour and regional anesthesia may take about two hours to wear off.
You will be given adequate pain medicine, either orally or through an IV (intravenous) line, as well as instructions for what to do over the next couple of days. In addition, you will be given an appointment to return in two to three weeks and a prescription for pain medicine. You should try to move your fingers while you are in the recovery room to improve circulation. Moving your wrist may be painful and you usually should not try to move your elbow.
Your temperature, blood pressure, and heartbeat will be monitored by a nurse, who, with the assistance of the doctor, will determine when you are ready to leave the hospital or, if necessary, be admitted for an overnight stay. The majority of patients leave the hospital after two or three hours. As soon as you are fully awakened, you usually are allowed to go home. You will be unable to drive a car, so be sure to have arranged a ride home.
Arthroscopic Debridement Shoulder Recovery
After arthroscopic debridement for a rotator cuff tear, you will need to take steps to reduce the pain and inflammation in the shoulder. Rest, icing, and anti-inflammatory painkillers such as ibuprofen or aspirin can ease pain and swelling. Immobilizing the shoulder in a sling for two or three days will help keep it stabilized. Larger tears may require you to wear the sling for a few weeks. Here is what you can expect and how you can cope with a sling immobilizing your shoulder:
. The first concern is to monitor swelling for the first 48 hours while wearing your sling. Physicians generally prescribe ice packs to be applied for 15 to 20 minutes at a time, three or four times a day.
. If the swelling has decreased during the first three days, you may be able to apply heat to help reduce pain. You should not apply heat to swollen areas because heat increases blood flow to the skin, which can prolong the healing process.
. Physicians generally recommend that you wear the shoulder sling day and night for about two or three days for partial tears and up to three weeks for complete tears.
. You can usually remove the gauze bandage and bathe regularly after two days. If surgeons had to make a 1 1/2-inch "mini-incision" to suture your rotator cuff tear, you may have to keep the bandage on and sponge bathe for about seven days. You can take your sling off for brief periods while you bath, but remember to avoid moving your injured shoulder.
. Some bleeding and fluid drainage is normal during the first two days. Call your physician if bleeding continues.
. When your shoulder starts to heal, your physician may recommend that you remove the sling for short periods to perform some light, early-motion exercises.
. You should move your fingers and hands in the sling as much as possible to help circulate blood.
. If you develop a rash or irritated skin around your sling, call your physician.
. If you notice any abnormal wear or discomfort in the sling, contact your physician as early as possible. In general, do not try to "grin and bear it" if discomfort does not go away within a few days. Slings should not irritate your skin.
. You may feel some stiffness in your shoulder. If the stiffness does not ease after two or three days, call your doctor.
The sling may make it difficult to use the hand of the injured shoulder. Some people may need to take two or three weeks off from work after a complete rotator cuff tear, depending on how much they rely on the immobilized arm.
To prevent stiffness, passive motion exercises usually can start as soon as possible after rotator cuff surgery with the aid of a physical therapist. However, your physician may recommend that you rest for between one to two weeks, depending on the severity of your injury and your involvement in physical activities. Physical therapy for rotator cuff tears usually progresses through four phases. The time you spend in each phase depends on the severity of your injury and your body’s ability to heal.
. The first phase focuses on decreasing inflammation in the rotator cuff. Your therapist usually helps you move your arm and stretch your shoulder.
. When you feel comfortable moving your arm with your own strength, the second phase of rehabilitation works on restoring a full range of motion and strengthening the hands, wrist, and elbow.
. When muscles and tendons in the rotator cuff have healed, the third phase of rehab strengthens the rotator cuff muscles. You usually learn shoulder-strengthening exercises without weights and progressively add resistance as pain goes away.
. When the muscles in the injured rotator cuff are about as strong as the uninjured muscles, phase four of rehabilitation becomes more activity oriented. You usually perform sport specific exercises and coordination drills under the supervision of a therapist or coach.
The best way to prevent recurring rotator cuff tears is to make the strengthening exercises you learned in rehabilitation part of your everyday routine. You should remember to stretch your shoulder and warm up before exercising. Sports that involve repeated overhead motion, like baseball and tennis, inevitably strain your shoulder.
To prevent injury, you need to keep all the rotator cuff muscles toned and flexible with an exercise program. You also may need to alter your work environment to avoid repeated overhead activities. Physicians generally recommend that you ice your shoulder after activities. Competitive athletes may need to use anti-inflammatory medication, like aspirin and ibuprofen, after sports activities that cause swelling in their shoulders. Physicians generally recommend that if you feel pain in your shoulder after a rotator cuff tear, you should cut back your activity level and return to your physician for a check-up.