Arthroplasty

arthroplasty

Arthroplasty

Arthroplasty (literally "[re-]forming of joint") is an orthopedic surgical procedure where the articular surface of a musculoskeletal joint is replaced, remodeled, or realigned by osteotomy or some other procedure. It is an elective procedure that is done to relieve pain and restore function to the joint after damage by arthritis or some other type of trauma.

Types

Joint replacement

 

Humerus-Head Endoprosthesis. Epoca Shoulder Arthroplasty System by Synthes

For the last 45 years the most successful and common form of arthroplasty is the surgical replacement of arthritic or destructive or necrotic joint or joint surface with a prosthesis. For example a hip joint that is affected by osteoarthritis may be replaced entirely (total hip arthroplasty) with a prosthetic hip. This would involve replacing both the acetabulum (hip socket) and the head and neck of the femur. The purpose of this procedure is to relieve pain, to restore range of motion and to improve walking ability, thus leading to the improvement of muscle strength.

iranian surgery

Other types of arthroplasty

  • Interpositional arthroplasty, previously a popular form of arthroplasty, with interposition of some other tissue like skin, muscle or tendon to keep inflammatorysurfaces apart
  • Excisional or resection(al) arthroplasty in which joint surface and bone is removed. The remaining ends are attached, or left to give time for scar tissue to fill in the gap. One variant of is the Stainsby procedure which consists of excision of part of a proximal phalanx in a metatarsophalangeal joint, reduction of the plantar plateand kirschner wire fixation of the metacarpal bone to the remaining phalanx.
  • Resurfacing arthroplasty, where one or both bone surfaces are trimmed and replaced with a smooth metal covering.
  • Mold arthroplasty,
  • Silicone replacement arthroplasty
  • Osteotomy to restore or modify joint congruity

Complications and Improvements

Arthroplasty presents various and continuous challenges to the engineer and surgeon. The prosthesis selected must be nontoxic yet resistant, compatible and durable. Meeting all these criteria usually means that the prosthesis will not last 10–20 years. 75% of artificial knees will last 20 years and 90% will last 10 years.

In recent years the technology has been improved with a porous-coated prosthesis which allows for stronger bonding to the body, but even more notable improvements have derived from the recent explosion in computer-assisted design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Using X-rays and other scans of the patient as well as modern 3D printing, personally tailored prostheses are a reality for more and more individuals.

Indications

  • osteoarthritis (OA)
  • rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  • avascular necrosis (AVN) or osteonecrosis (ON)
  • congenital dislocation of the hip joint (CDH) Hip dysplasia (human)
  • acetabular dysplasia (shallow hip socket)
  • frozen shoulder, loose shoulder
  • traumatized and malaligned joint
  • joint stiffness

Complications

  • Blot Clots or Deep Vein Thrombosis
  • Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Periprosthetic fracture
  • Loosening
  • Mechanical wear
  • Failure

 

10 common question about Arthroplasty

1What is the difference between arthroplasty and replacement?
Knee replacement is a kind of arthroplasty. Arthroplasty literally means "the surgical repair of a joint," and it involves the surgical reconstruction and replacement of degenerated joints, using artificial body parts, or prosthetics. ... With a prosthesis, the patient will feel less pain, and the knee will move properly.
2What is the difference between arthroplasty and arthroscopy?
Arthroscopy and arthroplasty are two minimally invasive surgical types. A traditional or open surgical procedure is one that opens up an area fully. Minimally-invasive procedures encompass both small incision surgeries and those with minimally invasive techniques that do not open up an area fully.
3What two joints are the most commonly replaced with arthroplasty?
Hip and knee replacements are the most commonly performed joint replacements, but replacement surgery can be performed on other joints, as well, including the ankle, wrist, shoulder, and elbow.
4What is a toe arthroplasty?
Hammertoe Correction (PIP Joint Arthroplasty) This surgical procedure is used to correct a hammertoe, a deformity of the toe that causes the toe to become permanently frozen in a bent position. During this procedure, a small piece of bone is removed to shorten the toe and allow it to straighten.
5What is arthroplasty surgery?
Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the function of a joint. A joint can be restored by resurfacing the bones. An artificial joint (called a prosthesis) may also be used. Various types of arthritis may affect the joints.
6Is hip arthroplasty the same as hip replacement?
In a total hip replacement (also called total hip arthroplasty), the damaged bone and cartilage is removed and replaced with prosthetic components. The damaged femoral head is removed and replaced with a metal stem that is placed into the hollow center of the femur.
7Is arthroscopy a major surgery?
Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure doctors use to look at, diagnose, and treat problems inside a joint. Your doctor may recommend it if you have inflammation in a joint, have injured a joint, or have damaged a joint over time. You can have arthroscopy on any joint.
8What is knee arthroplasty surgery?
Knee replacement, also called knee arthroplasty or total knee replacement, is a surgical procedure to resurface a knee damaged by arthritis. Metal and plastic parts are used to cap the ends of the bones that form the knee joint, along with the kneecap.
9What does arthroplasty mean in medical terms?
Arthroplasty (literally "[re-]forming of joint") is an orthopedic surgical procedure where the articular surface of a musculoskeletal joint is replaced, remodeled, or realigned by osteotomy or some other procedure.
10Why would someone need a joint replacement?
Joint replacement surgery is a highly effective way of eliminating joint pain, correcting a deformity, and helping improve the patient's mobility (movement). ... People who are considered for joint replacement surgery often have severe joint pain, stiffness, limping, muscle weakness, limited motion, and swelling.

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