Spinal fusion is surgery to permanently connect two or more vertebrae in your spine, eliminating motion between them.
Spinal fusion involves techniques designed to mimic the normal healing process of broken bones. During spinal fusion, your surgeon places bone or a bonelike material within the space between two spinal vertebrae. Metal plates, screws and rods may be used to hold the vertebrae together, so they can heal into one solid unit.
Spinal fusion permanently connects two or more vertebrae in your spine to improve stability, correct a deformity or reduce pain. Your doctor may recommend spinal fusion to treat:
At Mayo Clinic, you may first talk with your doctor about nonsurgical (conservative) options for your condition. If you decide to proceed with spinal fusion, ask your surgeon what approach would be best for you. Mayo Clinic surgeons are experts at performing less invasive surgery using smaller incisions for spinal fusion.
Spinal fusion is generally a safe procedure. But as with any surgery, spinal fusion carries the potential risk of complications.
Potential complications include:
Before surgery, you will undergo imaging studies of your spine. Your surgeon uses these images to plan and guide surgery. Mayo Clinic surgeons work with radiologists to create detailed, high-resolution images and precise 3D models. Mayo Clinic also uses an advanced robotic surgery system that offers enhanced preoperative planning and verification during surgery.
Preparation before surgery may involve trimming hair over the surgical site and cleaning the area with a special soap or antiseptic. Additionally, the surgical team may order monitoring of any unhealthy bacteria in your nose by taking a swab sample. Tell your doctor about any medications you are taking. You may be asked to stop taking some medications before the surgery.
Surgeons perform spinal fusion while you’re under general anesthesia so you’re unconscious during the procedure. Surgeons have developed a variety of techniques for performing spinal fusion surgery. The technique your surgeon uses depends on the location of the vertebrae to be fused, the reason for the spinal fusion, and in some instances, your general health and body shape.
Generally, the procedure involves the following:
In selected cases, some surgeons use a synthetic substance instead of bone grafts. These synthetic substances help promote bone growth and speed the fusion of the vertebrae.
A hospital stay of two to three days is usually required following spinal fusion. Depending on the location and extent of your surgery, you may experience some pain and discomfort but the pain can usually be controlled well with medications.
After you go home, contact your doctor if you exhibit signs of infection, such as:
It my take several months for the affected bones in your spine to heal and fuse together. Your doctor may recommend that you wear a brace for a time to keep your spine aligned correctly. Physical therapy can teach you how to move, sit, stand and walk in a manner that keeps your spine properly aligned.
Spinal fusion is typically an effective treatment for fractures, deformities or instability in the spine. But study results are more mixed when the cause of the back or neck pain is unclear. In many cases, spinal fusion is no more effective than nonsurgical treatments for nonspecific back pain.
It can be difficult to be certain about what exactly is causing your back pain, even if a herniated disk or bone spurs show up on your X-rays. Many people have X-ray evidence of back issues that have never caused them any pain. So your pain might not be associated with whatever problem has been revealed on your imaging scans.
Even when spinal fusion provides symptom relief, it does not prevent you from developing more back pain in the future. Most of the degenerative conditions in the spine are caused by arthritis, and surgery will not cure your body of that disease.
Immobilizing a section of your spine places additional stress and strain on the areas around the fused portion. This may increase the rate at which those areas of your spine degenerate — so you may need additional spinal surgery in the future.